University of the West of England
To Know the Learning Disability Psychological Perspectives
Dyslexia is a learning disability that is generally marked by trouble with spelling leading to impairment in reading and writing comprehension. Many times because of its symptoms it is sometimes referred to as a learning disability causing issues in a child's ability to learn the language and thereby facing issues with reading and writing (Snowling et al., 2020). Such children have learning differences as per the DSM-5 criteria and are diagnosed with a reading disability. Dyslexia due to its persistent effect causes a person to face lifelong issues and challenges (Snowling, 2019). The extent of the effect that can be observed in a person due to dyslexia can vary to diverse degrees. The issues normally faced by such people are quickly reading a text, difficulties in comprehending words and spelling, pronunciation and also understanding and properly comprehending a text/sentence even when someone else is reading and most often writing words (Hulme & Snowling, 2016).
Being a neurodevelopmental disorder, dyslexia has been categorized as a learning disorder causing reading difficulties in DSM5 (Snowling, M. J., & Hulme, C. 2012). According to stats available, the percentage of people suffering from dyslexia lies within 5 to 17% worldwide and it has been observed that dyslexia is found out to be more common in men as compared to women (Navas et al., 2014). According to data published by the British dyslexia association, around 10% of the UK population is a victim of this disorder and among these 4% of patients lie at the severe end of the disease. The majority of children with dyslexia are being not given due attention as well as unwelcoming attitudes for children with such learning differences. Thus it is important for teachers to provide supportive learning frameworks for helping children to improve their reading skills in inclusive education. There is a need to appropriate strategies for empowering dyslexic learners as well as raising the standards along with highlighting the relevance of empathy of teachers for improving the learning environments quality. The study skills are being taught to students for improving reading skills but the majority of teachers do not have approachability as well as empathy. Thus the study enlightens the role of teachers in promoting engagement of dyslexic children as well as improving self-efficacy.
This study was steamed from my concern in dyslexia as I was working in the secondary school as the SEN teacher. I feel that the dyslexic learner struggled academically through primary and secondary school. Additionally, I recognized how some students struggle with their reading and spelling skills, which most mainstream teachers did not understand. Moreover, I found that most of the mainstream teachers did not understand how and when to deploy strategies while working with dyslexic students. This made me make up my mind to do my master's program on dyslexia to know more about dyslexia to be able to support and give the best support possible to those learners. Therefore, I formulated this current study to enhance the understanding of this phenomenon.
This study focuses on determining the teaching pedagogies for support learners with dyslexia with their reading and writing when they enter Secondary school. While attempting to fulfil the above-mentioned research aim, the purpose of the research is to address the following questions:
How teachers can support learners with dyslexia with their reading in Secondary school?
The study methodology is based on finding high-quality literature which is majorly systematic review and questionnaires via action research plan. This comprehensive study utilizes a detailed search strategy and high-quality literature is reviewed for improving evidence-based practice for improving the teaching frameworks for supporting learners with dyslexia.
The theoretical base of my research practice is based on Paulo Freire's participatory action research. It is useful in the context of participatory action research which is built upon the critical pedagogy as per Paulo Freire (Campos et al., 2021). It will utilize the response to the conventional formal model relevant to special education needs. The representation for this model is that the teacher for the reading skills has to stands at the front. Then the educator imparts reading and visual skill information to children with learning differences who serve as passive recipients.
The participatory action research (Wadlington et al., 2005) will help in inculcating several research methodologies for which will provide evidence-based practice to improving the teaching frameworks.
The major hindrance is the unwelcoming attitudes of teachers as well as no additional support are provided to the teachers willing to devote extra time to help dyslexic children. The required funding is a major issue as when the school requests government funding either it is received too late and in the majority of cases, the boys feel left out in dyslexic help programs which are a major problem and they are stereotyped in inclusive classroom settings.
In this introductory part, I have touched upon the background as well as context along with rationale and the primary focus of the study along with various teaching challenges to support dyslexic learners. Moreover, the studys aim and objectives were elaborated.
In Chapter2 I explored the available literature to track down the progress to assist children with dyslexia and how a child with dyslexia could be helped out with his reading disability. How much the teachers in preschools and primary schools are aware of the conditions and how much they are trained in terms of their knowledge of language concepts. How much improvement a professional development training could bring in teachers and how it affects the improvement of reading and comprehension skills of children with dyslexia.
Chapter 3 focuses on the methodology deployed in this study to gather the evidence to fulfil the existing literature gap and aim of this study. Moreover, ethical considerations are included in this study.
Chapters 4 and 5 included the observations and findings of the study. Lastly, chapter 6 summarizes the main points of this study and a conclusion is formulated grounded on the whole study.
The study rationale is based on the Northern Ireland review about the Code of Practice for identifying as well as assessing the Special Educational Needs. The study rationale is coherent with this code for providing an operational and well-equipped framework relevant to practices as well as procedures in inclusive education for supporting dyslexic learners.
The rationale for the present study is based on teaching experience by inclusive education school
Psychologists (Long et al., 2007). The study takes into account various personal, social as well as behavioural along with psychosocial and emotional aspects of teachers in secondary schools which impacts the learning environment for dyslexic learners. It emphasizes the need for sustained positive change for improving teaching frameworks and addressing the training needs i.e. pre-service and during service training which ultimately improves the supportive framework for dyslexic learners.
Most often, children with dyslexia are observed to have reading and writing disabilities. It is not surprising to observe as reading is considered a crucial component in various writing development models (Graham, 2018; Hayes, 1996). For children facing reading difficulties the problem generally lies at the level of words (Scarborough, 2003; Siegel, 2004). Difficulty in alphabetic is thought to be the reason for recognizing words Liberman & Liberman, 1990; Snow et al., 1998). Poor word recognition causes a child to read slowly and oftentimes incorrectly leading to a poor grasp on the topic (Torgesen et al., 1999). As a child grows and moves ahead reading and writing becomes a means of acquiring knowledge (Chall, 1983) but without the basic initial word reading and comprehension a child is likely to fall behind (Juel, 1988; Lyon, 2001). In some cases, neurobiological causes could be a reason for reading difficulties (Vellutino et al., 1996) and when the causes are neurobiological the disability is referred to as dyslexia which is frequently misunderstood and often associated with a visual deficit (Hudson, High, & Al Otaiba, 2007). But now it is known that dyslexia is a language-based disorder and is marked by poor phonological processing (IDA, 2007; Lyon et al., 2003) and dyslexic children have fairly normal listening skills, the only thing they struggle with is word reading, comprehension and writing (Adams, 1990; IDA, 2007; Lyon et al., 2003). Because of their impaired phonological awareness, they seem to have difficulty with alphabetic writing (Liberman & Liberman, 1990). Although early intervention findings have indicated that children with dyslexia can do better with customized, systematic and intensive instructions (Torgesen, 2002; Vellutino et al., 1996). Later, It was realized by Adams, (1990) that giving customized and explicit instructions are invaluable for children with dyslexia or those who show poor phonemic skills. Similarly, it was pointed out by Brady and Moats (1997) that these children with poor phonetic skills require extensive and explicit instruction in the context of the structure of a language. Adding on this, the national reading panel upon meta-analysis also summarized that these children with dyslexia can benefit in their phonics, vocabulary, and fluency in text comprehension through direct, structured and explicit instructions. Later it was proposed by numerous researchers (Bos et al., 2001; Moats & Foorman, 2003; Spear-Swerling, 2007) that the findings put forth by NRP and other researchers have beneficial implications for professionals and teachers for acquiring knowledge about dyslexia and care for such students.
It was indicated by Moats (2004) that there is a need to understand the phonological word structure by the teachers so that they can bring students attention and make them understand the speech-sound coordination. They also added that teachers with understanding and grasp over phonemes and letters do better with students with dyslexia. Building on this they also suggested that systematic phonics instructions are crucial for learning reading at an early stage and thats why teachers have to have a good grasp of phonemics and word structure.
It was indicated that limitations of phonics instruction can be overcome by the ability of the teacher to understand the orthography and morphology of word structure (Snow, Burns, & Griffin 2005)
It is often experienced that children who have difficulties with speech and language may sometimes be at higher risk of not getting enough education and this scenario could also be experienced in the case of dyslexia as well (Pennington BF, Bishop DV., 2009). Language impairment and Dyslexia are often characterized by poor phonics but they differ from each other by the extent to which the language impairment persists (Bishop DV, Snowling MJ. 2004). It was also observed that in a few studies which have compared SLI disorders with dyslexia, it was found out that SLI is generally diagnosed in preschool whereas dyslexia is diagnosed at a much later age probably when the child has already spent few years in school and still does not able to comprehend and able to make enough progress with reading skills.
In a well-come language reading project for 5-year longitudinal study from age 3.5 to 8 years to track the development in children with language impairment at preschool and families at risk of dyslexia by Nash et al. 2013, Hulme et al. 2015, and Snowling et al. 2015, in which three groups were formed of students from preschool. These groups were students which were at risk of dyslexia, children at low risk and children with language impairments. The children were also considered for parental risk of dyslexia after assessment of language and literacy skills. The children were assessed and grouped in accord with whether they cross the language impairment criteria which was 1 SD below the mean of language concepts. This gave them 4 groups: developing children, children with SLI, at family risk, and children with SLI and at family risk of dyslexia. It was observed that children already had language impairment at preschool that is at family risk of dyslexia. These children did not differ on any parameter from children with SLI only whereas the children with family risk faced difficulties only at the level of articulation and word repetition along with difficulties in using grammar and in sentence repetition.
Gooch et al. 2013, in his study, went ahead and showed that children with SLI may also have attention deficit and impaired motor development than children without language impairment but are at family risk of dyslexia.
Later on, Hulme et al.2015, investigated the relationship between language and literary skills by tracking the progress among the children of three groups at different age time points. At 3.5 years of age, they analyzed the foundation of decoding, mainly the knowledge of letters and awareness of phonemes. Knowledge of letters and phoneme awareness that was taken at 4.5 years predicted the language skills at 5.5 years. Assessment of reading comprehension at the age of 8 years was later predicted by decoding at 5.5 together with language at 3.5 years. These observations show the crucial aspect of language development for the development of reading skills. It was noticed that the effect of language development at the age of 3.5 years was attributed to the awareness of phoneme and knowledge of letters, and a direct correlation between language development at 3.5 years of age and reading comprehension that was measured at 8 years of age. The study implicated that preschool students with poor language skills are at a relatively higher risk of developing reading impairment and dyslexia. The catch here is that it is not very uncommon for childrens to catch up with their peers if they have shown language development at a later stage of their preschool. Taking an idea from this observation a critical age hypothesis was proposed by Bishop and Adam, (1990). According to which the children will face reading problems only when the language impairment problems persist till the point the child reaches school.
As a part of the Wellcome Language and Reading Project, In order to investigate the development of language, to differentiate children who have chronic language impairment from those who have resolving impairment, (Snowling et al., ) the progress of children at three different time points were examined. The time points were preschool, entry to school and in the middle of primary school. By testing the vocabulary and grammar of children it was easy to determine whether they fall into the category of SLI at their respective time points. Out of all children, nearly 66% had normal language development as per their ages and time points. From others, it was possible to determine the trajectory (three trajectories) of development. Over 15% of the children had language impairments that resolved in later years, remaining around 56% of the children had persistent language impairments. Additionally, around 28%of the students showed late development of language impairments due to which although they have performed normally at the age of 3.5 years but as they grew up they performed poorly due to their persistent language impairment. It was also observed that this late-developing language impairment was strongly attributed to children at family risk of dyslexia. Finally, it can be concluded from the critical age hypothesis that children who have resolved language impairment at the start of their school tend to have performed well in terms of literacy outcomes whereas those children who had persistent impairments or developed language impairments at later age tend to have persistent reading impairments.
One of the crucial aspects when dealing with students with dyslexia is the teacher's concepts of basic language and their knowledge in this domain. In one of the very initial studies titled The Informal Survey of Linguistic Knowledge Moats (1994) asked his participants to explain or give examples of various terms and analyses words into speech sounds. In the study, he included eighty-nine teachers of different domains and the test results showed poor background knowledge of words that are being used while reading. Teachers also lacked phonic knowledge, morpheme awareness which is crucial for explicit and direct instruction to the students with reading difficulties.
In the past several years various studies (Bos et al., 2001; Cunningham, Perry, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2004) aiming at analysing a teacher's ability and knowledge about basic language skills which are required for giving personalized and directed instructions. All the studies even though they differed in their approaches, moreover gave similar kinds of results that were indicated in Moats 1994 study.
Bos et al. (2001) realized that those teachers who felt confident about their skills of language structure felt more comfortable and prepared about teaching how to read even for students who found it difficult to read. Strikingly among all the participants around two-third of teachers performed poorly in their knowledge about language structure.
In their study, Cunningham et al. estimated teachers ability and knowledge in the area of phonics, morphemic and phonological awareness and found out that teachers are poorly skilled in this domain and the group which previously has been thought to be aware of this knowledge also performed poorly and scored lower than expected.
Other researchers like Moats & Foorman, 2003; McCutchen, Green, Abbott, & Sanders, 2009; have also performed studies that aimed to measure the dependence of professional development on teacher knowledge of language skills and structure required for reading. They reported that implementation of PD over a period of one year resulted in improved phonological awareness, reading and writing systems in teachers who were regarded to be teaching well from the beginning and this helped teachers to familiarize themselves with evidence-based teaching techniques.
Tests performed before professional development indicated that teachers possess low linguistic knowledge as compared to knowledge about childrens literature, still, the post-PD test results show significant differences. The teachers who received PD were trained more in instructed directed alphabetic principles and then students who have received PD teachers have shown significant improvements as compared to students who were taught by non-PD teachers.
Findings by McCutchen and group also found out that PD training that was highly collaborative and which allowed teachers to improve their areas of weaknesses and allowed them to practice showed more potential to bring change in instructional habits of teachers and at the same time proved to be beneficial for students facing reading difficulties and increased their reading skills.
A few years ago researchers (Piasta, Connor McDonald, Fishman, and Morrison,2009) examined the teachers knowledge relation with students' improvement in word reading with the use of hierarchical-linear modelling. It was found that a teachers knowledge alone doesn't have a profound effect on improving a student's word-reading skills but several observations between the effect of teachers' knowledge and decoding the instructions were found. Therefore it was concluded that students who were taught by teachers who have knowledge as well as who have spent more time with students, in such scenarios students have received more improvements in reading words.
A similar finding revealed that students who were taught by less knowledgeable teachers but have spent more time in explicit instruction, performed poorly and these students had weaker word-reading skills as compared to students who were taught by knowledgeable teachers which proves that teachers knowledge is an important and crucial aspect in the success of students word-reading skills improvement (Piasta et al, 2009).
The inadequate training of teachers at the pre-service level can be the reason for the lack of understanding of basic language skills and concepts by the teacher. Upon analysis of the curriculum of around 72 elementary education programs by NCTQ (Walsh, Glaser, & Wilcox, 2006) it was found that out of all only about 15% of texts taught about the science of reading and 4 out of 226 texts came under acceptable limits in the context of the science of reading. Further, it was found that many books used by the universities for reading education lack adequate information about language concepts (Joshi, Binks, Graham et al, 2009). Separately it was also revealed that many educators also lacked the knowledge of basic concepts of language (Joshi, Binks, Hougen et al., 2009). Binks-Cantrell, Joshi, Hougen and Washburn also proposed that when the educator who teaches teachers had higher knowledge and understanding of language concepts also had teachers be students with a higher level of language concept understanding. It can be observed from the above studies that teachers generally don't have the required knowledge or skills in basic language concepts which is required to aid in the teaching of students with difficulty in reading, whereas once they get the required professional development training which increases their knowledge of the required domain eventually have a positive impact on struggling students reading capabilities. The outcome of these studies is that they havent been explored in the context of dyslexia. Hence there is a need to further concentrate the studies in the context of dyslexia and related reading difficulties. It can be summarized that teachers need to enhance their knowledge about dyslexia and related reading difficulty along with improving their knowledge of the language.
Children with dyslexia require different forms of interventions as compared with children facing poor comprehension. As per the evidence suggests that such children would require early interventions to improve their language concepts in order to improve their reading skills. After randomized trials, it was realized that early educational interventions that were administered by trained practitioners would be effective for improving reading skills in children with dyslexia (Washburn, E. K., Binks, E., & Joshi, R. M. 2008). In general, interventions that promote word comprehension and language decoding will be made up of training for letter knowledge, in the context of phonic instructions. Contrastingly, these interventions include training to enhance oral language skills which include working on vocabulary together with a focus on using inferences and metacognitive strategies to fully understand text, in order to promote reading comprehension (Snowling MJ & Hulme C., 2012).
An oral language programme was investigated and analyzed (Fricke et al. 2013) to improve grammar, vocabulary, listening skills, and also assess the impact of the programme on reading. It was found that greater gains were observed in children who have received intervention for oral language and narrative skills whereas the children in control groups who received no intervention have shown little or no gains in their letter knowledge or phonemic awareness. Even though the programme lacked any activity directed towards reading comprehension, and no significant outcomes were observed in decoding, an important outcome out of this programme that was observed was that the group which received the intervention showed significant improvements in reading comprehension 6 months post interventions, although these gains were mediated through improvements in oral language.
The impression of dyslexia is considered as the discrete classification of Special Educational Needs (SEN), however, it is acknowledged that many people are disadvantaged when they enter secondary school because of their dyslexia. Dyslexic students have reduced literacy skills in comparison to non-dyslexic students. According to the existing literature due to increased scholarly demand on the students during secondary school put various challenges and pressure on dyslexic students (Habib, 2021). Such a situation can lead to failure feeling and causes students to become discouraged and extricate from learning (Sprenger-Charolles et al., 2011).
Thomson (2007) stated that the expertise and training of many secondary teachers are precise to their subjects, therefore; many of the teachers do not understand the special needs of the dyslexic students. Hence, the dyslexic students face constant barriers to learn across and become disheartened with the initial failure. Driver Youth Trust in 2013 presented a report that demonstrated that approximately 52% of educators had not received professional training on dyslexia and around 74% of teachers stated that they did not receive any specific training to identify dyslexic children. There is up-surging recognition of the prevalence rate of dyslexia and the necessity to support dyslexic children in secondary school. Dyslexia Action, (2009) reported that approximately 1.2 million school-aged children are suffering from dyslexia. Still, there is less literature focusing on the impact of the change from primary to secondary school. Moreover, there is data on students experiencing stress and anxiety related to secondary transfer but very little has been found on the intervention. Therefore, it is essential to undertake a comprehensive study to determine the impact of the transition from primary to secondary school and to support the learners with Dyslexia with their reading in Secondary school.
The primary objective of this research study is to analyze the position of teaching staff for providing emotional and intellectual support to the learners with dyslexia with their reading in Secondary schools.
The effect of varied teaching strategies on children suffering from dyslexia when they shift from primary school to secondary school, the childs needs must be addressed. Also, the learning differences in such children must not be considered disabilities whereas addressing and diagnosing via teaching styles is important which must be done via DSM-5 criteria. This started with proficient reading which is a vital tool for learning as well as a major part of the study curriculum taught at secondary schools.
A dyslexic student finds the acquisition of vital literacy skills as difficult along with a high degree of anguish as well as Mental Health trauma in mainstream classrooms. When children with a dyslexic learning difference (Long et al., 2007) is unable to achieve the learning and literacy developmental milestones, he feels mentally abused via peers in a secondary schooling environment. This is because they put too much effort into the learning but fail to achieve the same level of reading skills as their peers. The teaching strategies of the teacher must be alleviating for integrating the child with learning differences into the mainstream learning environment. This helps in better achievement of self-esteem and self-confidence and better learning outcomes in reading and other literacy skills.
Often the dyslexic children are confused by teachers as being Class teachers may be consistently underachieving due to carelessness as well as lack of effort. But the lack of relevant diagnostic frameworks impacts a childs developmental frameworks.
In the majority of children suffering from dyslexia, poor auditory short term memory is the major cause. This results in problems with retaining input from the teacher in mainstream classes. Working in dyslexic settings provide evidence for poor auditory short term memory resulting in problems in children. These are related to remembering the sounds relevant to words being spoken and are long enough to match these. Children often face the problem of remembering the sequence of letters in complex spellings and a short sequence of instructions.
The research base for the project is based on a study of Sioned Exley for the SENCo at Guilsborough School (Exley, 2003). The dyslexic children were incorporated in the study a comprehensive in rural North amptonshire. The researcher reported undertook the study as to whether teaching to the preferred learning styles of students with dyslexia helps in the improvement of performance as well as educational attainment. The study sample inculcated children in the age group of 7 to 8 years in her school. In this context, majorly utilizing qualitative data was useful for making development and progress in learning frameworks for number work as well as spelling.
The research base is the interviews as well as the improved feelings regarding attitudes for the teaching as well as schoolwork.
The research in this educational domain (Burns et al., 2017) highlights the endeavours for examining educational phenomena as well as learning for dyslexic children. Improvement of the existing literature will reduce research gaps and improve teaching policy frameworks.
The planning as well as constructing this project, I have chosen to address concerning the special educational needs as a secondary school teacher. I made the study I formulated this current study to enhance the understanding of this phenomenon via systematic review.
The project endeavours the exploring the perception of secondary school children as well as parents in a secondary school setting. The systematic reviewing of the existing studies (Lindstrom, 2019) along with examining the questionnaire is the major aspect.
The paradigms, as well as philosophies, outline the perceptions for the application of research projects. These aspects are vital for research study designing as well as analyzing its outcomes. The paradigms are of utmost importance as they help in visualizing (Edwards, 2013) the beliefs which will help in guiding critical thinking and preparing the action plan. This project is based on an action research approach which is based on the systematic enquiry which teachers utilize for various researchers in relevance to their own practice. The study will be based on drawing various findings of various researchers and helping to develop the action plan. It will also include interpreting the outcomes of the research.
As an action researcher, I will undertake teaching pedagogies as well as teaching research
For the research approach, I will focus on philosophy which is applied in the context of dyslexia teaching. I will undertake the data and statistical interpretation simultaneous process of taking action and doing research, which is linked together by critical reflection. I will also utilize comparative research relevant to the conditions as well as effects of different types of teaching methodologies and their impact on dyslexic children in a secondary schooling environment.
This research will result in social action via improvement in teaching styles by planning the special education needs of children in terms of learning differences.
The theoretical base of my research practice is based on Paulo Freire's participatory action research. It is useful in the context of participatory action research which is built upon the critical pedagogy as per Paulo Freire (Campos et al., 2021). It will utilize the response to the conventional formal model relevant to special education needs. The representation for this model is that the teacher for the reading skills has to stands at the front. Then the educator imparts reading and visual skill information to children with learning differences who serve as passive recipients.
The participatory action research (Wadlington et al., 2005) will help in inculcating several research methodologies for which will provide evidence-based practice to improving the teaching frameworks.
The study researchers focus on qualitative research for providing evidence-based practice and future improvements. The qualitative research methodology is based on analyzing as well as understanding the perspectives as well as viewpoints of teachers teaching reading skills to dyslexic students. Qualitative research is based on diversifying educational research base. The qualitative research is based on dyslexic children who have a varying degree of differences in learning and processing teaching skills and thoughts. The experiences of teachers with an action plan will help in enriching the qualitative research.
Also, parents thoughts and perspectives about such changes in teaching pedagogies are important experiences and knowledge in the educational arena. Moreover, the qualitative review helps in rendering facts and records in the form of participants' interview interaction and perspectives. The collected data could be analyzed through narrative synthesis that was the selected methodology for this study.
A qualitative approach is useful as it provides the opportunity for the participant for using the experience as well as knowledge (Blunkett, 2001). The experience of teachers in terms of changing pedagogies is best for undertaking the special education needs and learning differences. Also, the research approach must focus on partnered approach by addressing the needs of children by parents as well as new paradigms useful for future research. In a secondary school setting the distraction is minimum, when teachers use special strategies for reading skills and improve childs memory and information retention via various processes. Distractions and that the interviewer can hear and record what the participant is saying.
Thus, I have decided to utilize teacher experiences in primary schools as well as secondary schools. This will help in ensuring the best possible rich data collection. The structure is being supported by suggesting an in-depth experience and perspective by the teachers for rich data collection via individual as well as group perspectives.
The major context in this research is the participatory action research which provides qualitative data for a reflective process. The qualitative data will help in progressive problem solving which will be led by individuals who are working in educational realms. Majorly in this context, solving problems relevant to children with dyslexia who were not given due attention in primary schools, thus a community of practice will help in improving the method of addressing the issues as well as solving their problems in secondary school settings. The quality assurance for the collected data and the literature utilized was done via appendix 1 and appendix 2.
The data collection process is based on existing literature for the experience of teachers as the documented studies and the surveys and the teachers perspective along with ideology and performance measurement.
The various selection criteria were applied to the research process for action research in terms of selection bias for reducing treatment error. The combination of keywords was utilized via search operators (AND, OR, NOT). The perspective of teachers was analyzed via semi-structured interviews which require human interaction. In action research, I am focusing on self-reflective data analytical view via critical as well as a systematic approach to exploring the teaching contexts. The data being collected is done via assessment sources as well as teachers reflection notes along with the samples of student works (Rowan, 2010) who suffered dyslexia in primary schooling too. Also, I focused on observation in the research literature. In this evidence-based characterization of particular procedures (Burns, 2010) the data will be introduced introduction as well as evolved via evaluation of the new practices. This involves a large number of cycles (Borg, 2017). The open-ended discussion in literature reviews, as well as physical observations about the learning differences of dyslexic children, is relevant in this context.
Also, the observations, as well as auditory notes, help in planning the semi-structured interviews in this project. It helps me to analyze the perceptions and concerns of parents as well as teachers as well as practitioners working with dyslexic children. The impact of changed teaching frameworks for improving literary skills in children is a major concern (Wenns, 2013). The standard questionnaire for the studies has been analyzed for reflecting the sensitivity of this subject. The teacher's view has been analyzed via open-ended questionnaire and written responses submitted via online means and they give the opportunity for the practitioner to express their feelings, experiences and knowledge on the project subject.
The study also undertook the classroom activities and experiences of teachers
The study was included various studies and data sets with audio recordings relevant to scientific interviews. The podcasts of experiences of teachers are also useful in this context and allowed individuals to engage as well as listening to the teaching experiences. Also, I tried to reengage in the pre-recorded surveys and then I sat down to note down the experiences and apply self-reflective pathways to the viewpoints. The surveys (Edwards et al., 2018) which are included closed-ended options like Likert 5 point rating scale and yes or no. Some short answer type open-ended responses were also recorded.
TOOLS: The combination of keywords for literature search included teachers AND support the learners with dyslexia OR reading skills AND Secondary school OR primary school.
The selection of the participants for the study was based on:
The enlisted qualities are key criteria for data collection for research. Also, the research participant has the pre-requisite experience as well as knowledge relevant to providing support to dyslexia children. It helped in collecting accurate as well as relevant data which is meaningful for the authentic study criteria.
The study being undertaken is small-sized with accurate study interventions along with snowball sampling convenience along with convenience sampling which involves non-probability sampling. The participants provide voluntary support as well as convenience to the collection of study experiences and surveys. Some participants worked in both primary as well as secondary schools which help in analysing differential support. The range of experience of teachers must be based on working in the childcare sector for three years to seven years. The study participants have a relevant degree and qualification for childcare trained at varying levels. The teaching support for children must be provided via a key worker who helps a child to address his special education needs. Also, they will address as to how and what type of support they got in the primary schooling environment and the level of psychological impairment that must be analyzed.
The teaching support must have provided learning support to the children via various community care programs and secondary school settings in a partnered care regime with psychologists and parents. The multiagency working regime must be clearly recognized when working with dyslexic children and providing them with a family supportive learning environment.
Majorly the participants utilize the alterations in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Muin et al., 2020).
The data collection was based on online research literature via research repositories such as JSTORt, Francs as well as Google Scholar along with EBSCO. The methodology for data collection and providing instruction to students was based on language approved by federal as well as state educational laws. The students who need support in this context of reading and learning differences are based on the provision of services by teachers in the legislative context as per IDEA (2006). Also, such teachers must utilize the 504 plan for the U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights released in the year 2016 for providing support to children.
Various limitations to the project being undertaken include the inconsistent study design as it must be based on a pilot study design. The action research relevant in the context of teaching pedagogies does not include any individualized responses of teachers. The selection of the participants must be done on a more descriptive as well as descriptive method via randomized sampling. Also, the teaching frameworks being employed engage the individualized perception of teachers for improvement in providing support in secondary education to students. Also, the qualitative approach did not address pre-service training for teachers as well as the type of training for handling dyslexic children. The self-reflective view being presented did not address any standardized legislative frameworks and also reduces reliability as well as the accuracy of study results.
Compliance with ethical principles is important as the participants must not be unduly pressurized for responses and must remain confidential. Compliance with the DSM-5 principles is important as the perceptions of the participants must not be undermined. Am Informed consent is important before initiating any project. The consent must be documented via online platforms and must not harm the interest of the respondents and the standardized questions can be changed any time in case of participant feels uneasy or conflict of interest. Confidentiality, as well as anonymity, must be maintained in such projects undertaking the pedagogies.
The compliance to ethical principles must be based on principles emphasized by Beauchamp and Childress (2001). The framework for this study must be based on ensuring that the present study is conducted in compliance with professional as well legal along with social and moral principles in the whole research study. Also, the ethical compliance in terms of permission of parents about informing them of their right for withdraws from the study in case of problematic behaviour with a child. The teachers must be informed about the series of reflection as well as evaluation seminars which will be undertaken in response to the internal audit for surveys relevant to continuous professional development (Bell, 2013) requirement for improving support framework to dyslexic children.
The current project is based on a quite sensitive aspect for which every stage is important via careful monitoring of the participants. The validity of question selection is based on participants well-being and reviewing at each step. The validity of the research will improve as the sensitive subjects are vital and also analyze the hypothesis for providing support to children with dyslexia in primary school and analyzing their psychological needs via DSM-5 as per each criterion
The ethical approval obtained for the project will impact the perception of the effects of support for teaching frameworks for providing support to the reading skills.
Also, the validity, as well as reliability of the project, will help in improving the authenticity of the research project. Also, the structured interviews along with closed-ended surveys will improve authenticity due to high relevance per evidence. The semi-structured interview reduces the reliability related to responses that are not consistent.
While researching the educational themes and reliable outcomes reliable and relevant themes are engaged but the answers given by the respondents vary which reduces the consistency of study results. Validity in terms of the accuracy for assessment is high and carefully used in the project. Also, it can be validated by the interviews which occur in an institutional setting as it prompts recollection for the responses answers. Also, the interviews which will be utilized in the research study, then the interviewer must take into consideration about that outcomes wanted on participants must not impact the perspective of the participant.
The validity will be evident via the interviews which will be clearly as well as accurately recorded and the reliability of the feelings will be clearly displayed.
The data analysis will be done in sequential order via preliminary data analysis which will help in providing a holistic view of the research theme. The preliminary analysis included secondary research via literature and analyzing the research gaps. Also, I utilized an order for analyzing the qualitative data which include:
I will interpret the data via reflective cycles such as Gibb& reflection cycle. I stated all interviews as well as transcripts along with written data as a response to the questionnaire and have to be analyzed by the researcher during the analysis stage. The research questions and the research themes can be interpreted via perception relevant to participants & social worlds for child"s learning differences. Teaching pedagogies can be analyzed as the teaching styles vary but the relation to the teaching staff will help in individualized but relevant perceptions. I spent a large amount of time for becoming familiar with the research methodologies and research norms.
The findings of the study are based on perceptions of teachers about the support which can be offered to dyslexic children in a secondary schooling environment. After I analyzed the various teaching reflections of teachers and literature studies, I analyzed the various themes and subthemes which were being reflected in action research. I analyzed the type of research evidence for action research and then the theme. I reviewed my results and findings discussing my findings and analyzed them by associating them with the theoretical framework and teaching pedagogies as mentioned in the literature review. I will also analyze if the literature review challenges my findings or it supports the findings in a positive way. During analysing my data and findings, I linked the findings with my research objectives and research question in the context of research as well as key issues along with the subthemes which help in better training and supportive frameworks for dyslexic children after analyzing them as per DSM-5 criteria within a secondary school setting (Slungile et al., 2020).& ;Table 2 of my findings is attached below. In the chapter, I discussed the important themes as per thematic analysis along with the sub-themes relating to them.
Table 1 shows the obtained results for teaching and supporting children with learning differences& as well as data analysis based on student notes and teachers reflection as well as a questionnaire
|Type of research evidence
|Alteration in phonics method
|Everyday adjustments to practice in action research
|Application in live teaching
|Spelling and writing in Phonics
|Secondary research via better teaching pedagogies
|Multi - sensory techniques support for secondary schools students with learning differences
|Tools such as:
Table 2 shows the major themes and subthemes for the challenges faced by teachers for supporting children suffering from dyslexia
|Completing the Syllabus
|Lack of Support
|Lack of Training
When analyzing the findings and collected data relevant to the research and teaching pedagogies for the research question. The perceptions of early years practitioners about the effects of no support to children with learning differences in primary schools and how teachers can support such children in secondary school settings. The 4 major themes have been identifying in this qualitative study.
The first is the insufficient time which is being analyzed from the literature review. The experiences of children reported about the challenge of insufficient time for supporting children with dyslexia. This impacted the teaching frameworks as well as learning frameworks in continuing the school operations as well as support programs (Sordov et al., 2018). The problem was being shared but the majority of teachers in varying facets in terms of the syllabus as well as period allocation along with average time spent in schools.
The subtheme identified in this is completing the syllabus in secondary schools. This is a major problem as the teachers are expected by regional inspectors as well as school administration to complete the syllabus by end of the year as a sign for effective teaching for helping even dyslexic children (Snowling et al., 2011). But the expectation often forces teachers to quickly complete the syllabus as the inability to complete the syllabus will lead to being taken to task as well as a large number of incompetencies.
This refers to the process of rushing as well as neglect of the children with learning differences as they require need more attention but the teachers in secondary schools are not able to give extra time under such highly forced circumstances (Cogo et al., 2012). This is major incompetency for teachers as they have to give time to children after school and thus support dyslexic children after the mainstream classes are over as well as on holidays. An experience of a teacher 33 years old female teacher who revealed that its a huge problem it is being assumed that like a mother I am forced to sacrifice one of my children in an educational institution. But I know that my dyslexic children require more time and it is painful as these situations are not in my control. I cannot give my children what they need to learn and the time of the school calendar does not allow me to give children with learning differences due attention.
Another theme was based on unwelcoming attitudes. The student notes revealed that the mainstream students acknowledged the inclusion of dyslexic students and are important for the adoption of inclusive education in the secondary schooling environment and mostly students demonstrated unwelcoming attitudes (Snowling et al., 2011). The students notes also clearly revealed that the students accepted the move from the governmental agencies for inclusive education. But the majority of the respondents did not feel ready as well as not prepared for children with learning differences.
The subtheme within this is negative attitudes as unwelcoming attitude serves as a potential barrier for including children with learning differences as teachers majorly perceive children with dyslexia as largely incapable (Indrarathne, 2019). The student notes from most schools for research study revealed that at the end of the year, when the student results were discussed, the children with learning differences are either required to repeat or push to the next class when the students have already repeated multiple times. Such perception about dyslexia learners is a major limiting factor as learning differences are not enough and are not expected to pass in the schooling environment. Also, as per the teachers experiences and comments, it is emphasized that dyslexic children remain in mainstream class till they either drop off or due to the system which tires out such children (Prestes et al., 2017). Also, this is much better with free education as such children are allowed to repeat as per their wish as they do not want to pay.
Another subtheme is low self-esteem. It is based on the feeling of unaccepting learners with dyslexia in the mainstream and it begins from the observation about dyslexic learners and they attack the self-esteem. Also, children with learning differences are often offended when they are allowed to stay back for extra classes when other students leave. Thus the teaching experiences provide evidence about the problems during convening dyslexic learners for remedial work. Also, embarrassment due to separation from their peers is a major challenge (Stampoltzis et al., 2018). It makes the dyslexic children aware that they are different as well as negative feelings impact students self-esteem negatively.
Another subtheme is powerlessness as the teachers provide perceptions about the inclusion of dyslexic learners in terms of powerlessness in fighting. The problems were majorly perceived because of governmental guidelines imposed for inclusive education as such children had to accept the situation which was the only option. Also, the perception was applicable to the inclusion of children with dyslexia learners as well as teachers felt that whole inclusive education was an obligatory regulation.
The comment of a female teacher with five years of teaching experience emphasized that it is bad and reduces happiness as the government made it legislation. Also, the only individual between these controversies is the teacher. The teacher is expected for making miracles in absence of support as well as lack of any additional equipment for supporting children ().
Another theme is the lack of support which includes inclusive education. It is fully functional in primary schools in Swaziland as the teachers appointed for dyslexic learners were asked if
They feel supported by the governmental agencies as well as support by the schools in mainstream learners but teachers pointed that no support was provided as it lacked governmental support.
The next subtheme is governmental Support. The children with dyslexia are supported by teachers in a secondary school but teachers feel that they require assistance from inspectors who must visit the schools for in-service training as well as to conduct workshops (Keenan et al., 2021) for training the teachers as well as guide administrative staff for acting in the best interest of children with learning differences. Also, the feeling was based on the ministry of Education and governmental agencies that the government is not providing enough reading materials, as well as teachers, feel that they must help the learners to share the learning materials and teaching becomes difficult and nearly impossible as per a teacher with nine years of teaching experience.
Another subtheme is administrative support in the case of Swaziland. The government in this instance is the major regulating body for the educational system. Also, the principals are trusted for carrying out daily activities in school along with power and authority for making appropriate decisions relevant to the progressive functioning of the secondary schools. Also, it was investigated about the role and working of school principals and administration for supporting teachers for children with learning differences in their supportive learning frameworks.
An experience of a female teacher with five years of teaching experience, experience explained that school administration provides no help or assistance for supporting children with dyslexia. But teachers feel that such children are not failures but the teachers are the major culprit for failure. Thus, teachers did not ask for any assistance as they will be blamed.
Also, the absence of school support is determined as in terms of lack of resources for issues which had to be done with buying of supplementary reading materials which was not a major priority for secondary school administration priority and the governmental aid in form of monetary allocation is sometimes too late that the school ends up being in debt and the money being sent lately is used to repay debt and not used for buying supplementary reading material for teaching engaged in supporting children with learning differences.
The last theme is lack of training which is being demonstrated by reflective experiences of 6 teachers who did not receive any tertiary training as well as the absence of in-service training relevant to inclusive education as well as dyslexia (Tiernan et al., 2018). The majority of teachers struggled to successfully utilize inclusive learning for dyslexic children in their mainstream classrooms.
The subtheme inclusive for this is pre-service training which was being reported by the majority of teachers who support dyslexic children in inclusive classrooms but did not receive any training for inclusive education. Thus teachers received exposure to unpleasant experiences when developing supportive frameworks for dyslexic learners (Katsarou, 2018). Thus the training they received was not enough.
Also, teachers reported that training disabilities were merely hinted at in the training and they did not go into details about children mental and emotional support and wellbeing and they felt they were merely as good as someone who did not undergo training time and people who went training did not invest much in dyslexia and did not consider it as a single entity (Merga et al., 2020) as told by a female teacher with five years of teaching experience.
Also, teachers who underwent training emphasized that cooperation is also required by various teachers. But the teacher did not successfully include children with learning differences if cooperation was not provided by other teachers as teaching is a joint effort. Also, teachers explained that for children with learning differences, progress can be made in secondary schools only when progressive frameworks are provided from the previous grade. Thus, a group of teachers must help such children to get through. As combined efforts are needed to help the children with learning differences to the negative perceptions which they formed in last schooling years about their differences.
The last theme is in-service training which is being asked by the teachers and they want to learn about addressing the needs of children with learning differences. Thus it is important to address such learning differences instead of merely focusing on buying updated scheme books as being informed by a female teacher with five years of teaching experience.
Also, the follow-up will help in improving teachers& skills for improving the reading skills of dyslexic children. The follow-up must be done on a yearly basis which will be advantageous for teachers and aid in better support for dyslexic children.
The findings are relevant to various themes as per the experiences of teachers for providing support to secondary school children. The findings focus on major challenges in inclusive education which focuses on providing teaching support to both types of learners with special needs as well as learners without special needs. The major policy intervention, as well as objective for the educating and supporting of children with special educational needs, is based on inclusive education. The major policy outcomes to overcome barriers for inclusive education includes equal learning opportunities for dyslexic children as well as enabling them for attaining education as well as career fulfilment along with improving mental wellbeing (Morte-Soriano et al., 2021). The researchers provide evidence about the attention provided to children with dyslexia and evident in secondary schooling institutions. The review as provided by the school superintendent of Texas is highly critical who pledged for approaching the dyslexic environments quite aggressively as well as proactively (Thwala et al., 2020). The findings clearly state the challenges and negative attitudes, which are majorly part of primary schooling environments. In contrast to this, Knight et al. provided an open-ended opinion that the teachers must understand the problem of dyslexia as well as its impact on children with learning differences. Also, The problem of learning difficulties i.e. differences made it imperative for teachers to utilize inclusive teaching pedagogies and must pay attention to them. But results yield that majority of teachers had a low level of preparedness for identifying as well as addressing special educational needs due to lack of pre and during service training. The root cause of this problem and unwelcoming attitudes but it is of utmost importance to include children with learning differences in mainstream classrooms. Thus, the study results clearly emphasized that the teaching experiences of teachers while dealing with dyslexic children in mainstream classrooms requires a clear theoretical framework. This is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour by Ajzens (1988).
The theory of planned behaviour is based on asking people about their intention for behaving in a particular way and analyzing the best prediction relevant to behaviour. This means the intention for the behaviour might not be expressed itself if physically performing the behaviour is not possible and unexpected barriers arise in implementation frameworks.
The various determinants of behavioural intention include perceived behavioural control as well as attitude and subjective norm. The modelling of children support framework is based on attitudes as well as subjective norms and perceived behavioural control for predicting individual intention as well as behaviour. The major challenge is the negative attitude and behaviour, which results in the retardation of support frameworks as per study results. It is critically observed that despite the impact of various demographic factors, the behaviour is guided via attitude as well as intention. It clearly emphasizes that before the behavioural intention is determined by individual attitudes even before the behaviour occurs. This theory does not adhere to study results.
Various literature studies utilize this theory for explaining the experiences of teachers when dealing with children with dyslexia in mainstream classrooms. Thus, it is relevant for analyzing the individual intention of teachers for supporting as well as teaching reading skills to children with learning differences.
However, the challenges and thematic analysis results adhere to empirical studies in terms of the experience of teachers for teaching learners with dyslexia. The study results revealed that several challenges are analyzed by teachers for teaching reading skills to dyslexic children and majorly it is a lack of effective teaching pedagogies in an inclusive or mainstream classroom. Another major shocking point was revealed by the teachers about the pre-service as well as during service training was a major point for teachers who raise concerns about students with learning differences during inclusive teaching.
The results revealed that teachers did not have knowledge about cognitive, behavioural, as well as biological aspects of dyslexic children and it clearly determined the high-end relevance of good quality teacher training which ultimately helps in improving the confidence of teachers who support children with learning differences.
Even if teachers have a positive and supportive approach to help such children, then there occur various barriers, which are institutionally relevant and hold positive to neutral attitudes for helping children with dyslexia.
However, the unwelcoming attitudes of teachers are also prevalent as enlisted in existing literature in terms of using negative comments in the public schooling environment (Sordov et al., 2018) which is a huge embarrassment for students with dyslexia, and such teachers did not pay any attention to their learning differences. In addition, prominently the teachers of English language majorly lack sufficient knowledge relevant to learning differences particularly for dyslexia along with various inclusive language teaching practices
In addition, the relevant skills for inclusive teaching environments were not present in foreign language teachers. The effective implementation of supportive frameworks, as well as individualized supports for students with dyslexia, is limited because of problems with neuropsychological reports as well as resource limitations.
The results are as intended, the majority of teachers had a negative attitude, and in some cases, there was no support by schooling authorities. This is in contrast to the teachers in Hong Kong who are struggling due to increased diversity in dyslexic learners. The major changes in data collection for the present study include varied themes of research literature and huge diversity, which made it difficult to analyze the particular viewpoint for action research.
In addition, there is huge evidence as per the action research from interviews from teachers providing supportive frameworks. This demonstrated that there is a lack of strong leadership in teachers as well as abilities for carrying out high-quality instruction in the mainstream classroom.
In addition, study themes clearly demonstrate that the teachers, in the majority of cases who approach the inclusion of students with learning differences special in inclusive education feel apprehensive as well as ill-prepared.
The action research investigated the view of teachers via student notes and the inclusive education for dyslexic students in relation to the Greek language. The foreign language teachers
Clearly provided the plethora regarding negative experiences in teachers providing additional support to dyslexic children in inclusive education. The study results are non-coherent with a view of a limited number of elite schools providing policy for facilitating teachers in the mainstream classroom whereas not much importance is being given to them during service training relevant to supporting children with dyslexia.
It is being analyzed that pre-service teachers have a negative attitude towards students with learning differences. The root cause of this is the low level of knowledge as well as much less experience for learning disabilities. Both study results, as well as existing literature, provide the view of the majority of teachers in terms of the adequacy and efficiency of initial teacher education for supporting the dyslexia students in the mainstream classroom is quite low. This clearly provides the aspect of teachers about the attributional responses relevant to dyslexic children and it negatively affects the self-efficacy of students as well negative impact on student motivation towards learning.
The intended results and outcomes are obtained as various authors provided a review about the Multisensory Structured Language approach in relevance to the differences for grammar, language as well as syntax along with phonology which is a major part of teaching pedagogies. The phonology-teaching program provides significant emphasis on speaking as well as reading along with writing the language.
A major challenge is in terms of determining how teachers in case of busy modern language inclusive classrooms can utilize the various methods. It is being analyzed from the data that utilizing such techniques in inclusive settings for whole student groups along with direct teaching being provided. Thus, children can practice with other pupils for the over-learning vital for long-term memory and retention.
The various support provided by teachers includes teaching alternatively between reading as well as written along with sounds made by them. Thus, the existing literature highlights the requirement for developing orthographic as well as phonological awareness for improving support to dyslexic children in secondary schools (Thomson, 2008). This clearly emphasizes that there is a dire need for recognizing as well as identifying the onsets along with syllables as well as rimes. Also, various other relevant identification in teaching pedagogies include individual sounds as well as differentiating various sounds, The words must be divided into syllables as well as sounds. For supporting the reading and retention of children with learning differences, it is important to reposition as well as remove or replace various sounds, which in turn help in the formation of new words. These changes must ensure high efficacy via utilizing different multi-sensory methods like picture cards as well as tokens, flashcards. Various student notes suggest the use of letter cards along with graphic models, dominoes, various word slides, and bingos.
Other support material includes customization of the font as well as enlarging the font size as per requirement. In some teachers, questionnaires it was described the generalistic adjustment of reading materials for dyslexic children which further leads to a supportive environment for children with learning differences. These adjustments vary as per the different symptoms varying from mild to severe learning difficulties as well as accommodating the learning requirements which differ too, thus a largely individualized and student-centred approach is needed.
Phonics is a widely utilized methodology for supporting secondary school dyslexic students as well as teaching reading skills as well as writing skills relevant to the English language. Various authors from the literature provide evidence for the approach to be utilized as a method for teaching and improving the English spelling (Jacobs et al., 2021) as well as reading unfold.
Thus, there is a close association between phonemes and graphemes along with closely linked with phonically. Furthermore, it includes various rules i.e. phonics generalizations which must be gradually introduced to dyslexic learners. In addition, the dyslexic children initiate developing logic relevant to letter combinations along with the realization of various phonetics.
The result does not inculcate much information about linguistic phonics and is based on various sounds, which are represented via sounds as well as letters (Ross, 2019). These are represented by a single as well as a large number of letters along with longer words, which are made of syllables such as blocks of sound. In addition to this, a similar sound representation can be done via various methods, as well a similar grapheme must represent more than a single sound.
In addition to this, it is important to correctly introduce the phonics generalizations. However, there is not a single way to initiate the systematic as well as explicit Phonics instructions with increased effectiveness as compared to non-systematic. The main reason is that it helps in significant improvement of recognition of words by dyslexic learners in case of reading comprehension as well as spelling.
It is increasingly effective for dyslexic students with different socio-economic conditions. It is highly advantageous for children with learning differences. The systematic as well as explicit Phonics generalizations are vital for providing instructions in an appropriate collection of letter-sound relationships as well as organizing various relationships into logical instruction sequences.
The phonics includes segmenting as well as blending along with phoneme manipulation for phonological skills, which are vital in the case of introducing the phonics generalization. Various skills required by teachers to support dyslexic learners include gaining the ability for accessing single sounds as well as push sounds in a set. This will help them to gain skills for omitting Substitute sounds as well as making new words. However, the teachers experiences reveal that phonics is not simply teaching rules. Thus, the main objective is encouraging further investigation for improving the learning of children with lea ring differences.
The students notes reveal that special educational needs include extra practice for the application of correct phonics generalizations in case of generalizing unfamiliar words as well as producing Estimated pronunciation along with making appropriate and realistic pronunciation inferences by analyzing the known words. The Slovak learners are non- English dyslexic learners and they can easily analyze the phonetic rules by understanding the need as well as application of such rules in daily practice.
The requirements of children with learning differences include various features relevant to the phonics pedagogy. It consists of cumulative as well as structured along with multisensory phonics methods. Various language experts and teachers provide the view that phonics is a major element for helping dyslexic students. The positive impact of positive phonics instructions is majorly reported by English language teachers based on reading as well as subsequent improvement in the spelling of children with special educational needs and thus it is suggested to utilize Phonics methods as supportive teaching frameworks.
The findings in this research project clearly have found that teachers in secondary school settings have a significant impact on dyslexic learners educational development. This is majorly important if such a student has not received special care and support in primary school settings. The 4 main themes were highlighted ranging from insufficient time to lack of training. The clear ideology in this is based on the multidisciplinary elements which must combine for ensuring that the needs of learners with special educational needs are being addressed even in inclusive settings. From the 4 main themes, 7 subthemes emerged. Thus, it helped to look closer into various themes as well as analysing the effect of unwelcoming attitudes of teachers on the behavioural and intellectual development of dyslexic children Safeguarding and Protection In Care. Some crucial findings which were observed were that every students requirements are addressed in inclusive education as well as the needs of non-dyslexic students must be addressed in inclusive education settings and requires a shared policy making for improved performance. The relationship of teachers with dyslexic students can be very different due to unsupportive frameworks and the need for extra time for extra memory retention. Children who have been diagnosed as per DSM-5 (Tiernan et al., 2018) for learning differences and majorly dyslexia must be assessed individually for ensuring that their reading skills and memory retention is improved without any negative impact of a poorly supportive environment. Furthermore, the personal experiences of teachers are a major aspect that was discussed in the context of institutional settings and support of extra material for supporting dyslexic children. The implications of this on practice is that teachers in secondary school must indulge in transforming positive attitudes and welcoming attitudes for children and show positive spirit for indulging in extra time for improving memory retention and better relationships for better development of such children with learning differences. This is evident from the findings that from the finding that
Policymaking must focus on developing strategies for mandatory pre-service and during service training of teachers for supporting children without any confusion in an inclusive education curriculum.
The results section reflects on the different supportive policies in the context of inclusive education and seeks the objective of a holistic approach to Education for All. The major policy problems which prevent the overall constraints which limit the vision of education and resonate with the charter of the notion that 'no child is left behind. In addition to this, an implication for future policy is based on policy objective which focuses on addressing the education of children with learning differences in inclusive education. This policy-making will focus on inclusive education stipulating fair as well as equal learning opportunities (Ahmad et al., 2018) for each student which ultimately enables them in attaining agreeable levels of education as well as career fulfilment. Thus the inclusive education policy inculcates supportive frameworks for accommodating the requirements of all students in learning environments (Leseyane et al., 2018) irrespective of the state of their mental health.
Future policy-making must focus on facilitating the teachers teaching for the inclusive classroom as well as paying importance towards professional training relevant for supporting dyslexic children to dyslexia.
The present study findings suggest that successful support for dyslexic children is recommended in a multidisciplinary support and training system.
The above-mentioned recommendations will ensure improving support to dyslexic children in inclusive education settings. These recommendations will support various developmental aspects of children with learning differences. If correct support is provided to secondary school students, then their reading and spelling skills will improve.
The pilot research is also an important consideration for improving supportive frameworks for English reading as well as pronunciation along with spelling to dyslexic learners in the mainstream classrooms along with students without any special educational needs.
In addition to this, the phonics method must be applied to the learning frameworks in the non-native environment for learners of the English language as a foreign language. Also, the phonics method must be applied to developmental frameworks for children with learning differences. Moreover, the accommodations must be adapted for the needs of integrated education. This is because it is estimated that various adjusted methods, as well as the alteration in the learning environment, prove beneficial in integrated educational settings for both types of learners i.e. with and without special educational needs. The prime focus of the study is the appropriate choice for Phonics generalizations. This requires dealing with phonemes as well as various graphical realizations. But these are not relevant to the Slovak language as English is a second language but is not similar to Slovak phonemes. In addition to this, the phonetic rules present major problems as otherwise the dyslexic children will easily lose their interest as well as lose concentration relevant to inclusive learning.
In addition to this, the teachers must analyze the interest of children with special educational needs as well as the types of tasks that needs to be inculcated in daily teaching. The teachers must analyze the interest as per the time which is given to the various exercises as well a shorter and more frequently instead of devoting the whole lesson to teaching phonics instructions.
Thus the improved frameworks after proper training will focus on improving their receptive
as well as productive skills relevant to foreign language. This will aid teachers to lead the lesson in a more systematic as well as logical way, ensuring improving retention by dyslexic children.
During analysing the study findings there are potential further research questions that must be undertaken. The first question is based on the literature and as per the analysis it is stated the impairment due to dyslexia is mild or moderate. My research question would be pre and during service training for teachers impacts dyslexia memory retention. . Thus children entering an inclusive education have either higher awareness and how it impacts their confidence as well as competence level. How pre-service training is beneficial apart from the provision of extra reading material for teaching dyslexic children. A further question which is relevant to the subject, if the UK has a pre-service training plan for primary settings to improve the behavioural and reading aspects of children in secondary schools and what is the level of support at the university level as well as the level of implementation. In various inclusive education settings in the UK (Hulme et al., 2016) what are various legal requirements for during service training for teachers and what assessment is required to analyze the teachers intellectual for dealing with dyslexic students from the ongoing experience? What is the effectiveness of this training program and level of efficacy for improving reading skills in students via phonics? The importance of the research question will help in analysing the impact on the learner memory outcomes that are affected by the teachers training system. As per the action research, the student notes and interviews, which level of DSM-5 which impact teacher training and what type of training is fit for the diagnosed impairment level depending on the severity? The final question is what multi-agency working conditions are prevalent in the UK and what is structural support for teachers in inclusive education? But certain legal requirements support the UK dyslectic education system and training will be fit as per Northern Ireland norms for the Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs.
The research method used was action research which utilized questionnaires as well as student notes, interviews with teachers along everyday adjustments to practice in action research and pilot search. Reflection was the best methodology for action research. It included a work-based research project, the teachers were chosen who the practitioners were and they shared their teaching experiences about inclusive education. The perceptions of the teachers of secondary school teachers were relevant to the project and subsequent future improvement. But a major critique of utilizing the structured interviews was that at various points in each interview the questions, as well as responses provided, were not highly relevant to the study objective. The time devoted to the interviews was much more than anticipated and a large amount of data was collected had a low level of relevance to the project outcomes that werent relevant to the project. The major contradictory factor on this is that large amounts of data collected helped in devising innovative research questions which are new and were constructed from the collected data. Thus the data which was irrelevant to the present project was relevant to future projects and further research.
The relevant main themes and subthemes were identified in the present research study. The findings present clear relevance with the identified themes and the various interviews as well as student notes contained all four main themes, thus it provided gave research verification because the data findings were highly consistent with study outcomes. The structured interviews were highly reliable as the questions were asked to various teachers in inclusive education and the responses provided information about all 4 main themes. The responses provided by teachers were different in most instances as they provided varied perceptions and increased range of perceptions in the research project and data analysis provided authentic relativity with all 4 themes. During the reflection upon the process of the project, next time I will utilize more time about responses from school management assignment help and parents for a holistic view. This will improve the relevance of study outcomes. The data analysis will be done via the perception of inclusive education themes. Also now I have more experience of carrying out future projects in an increased duration due to data collection and anticipating them for further use (Bishop,. 1990).
The personal learning, which I have learnt from the project, is substantial and learning is based on holistic frameworks. It helped in gaining the project planning skills as well as improved my confidence in doing research and improved planning for research projects along with completing this research project. In addition to this, my ability to carry out and complete a research project has improved. Moreover, I have learnt various research skills in this project and improved adaptability for the process throughout via new skills. Now I have the confidence in conducting qualitative data analysis as well as improved presentation of findings. The literature review aided in finding new ideas as well as concepts for making further suggestions and improving the research frameworks. Evidence-based learning is a major part of this model for improving structural support to children with dyslexia in secondary school settings and has learnt from the literature review about the existing theoretical framework along with a better understanding of addressing the needs of children.
Thus I have enjoyed the time spent in research and working towards improving structural support for children with learning differences. It will improve future research and having learnt about reflective frameworks on action research it helped in improved experiences for professional development in my career. The knowledge about theory and practice for theoretical frameworks helped in the expansion of my knowledge based which improved my personal understanding as well as the increased importance of research. The learning about existing settings is impacted by the study findings as well as the analysis of my study data.
I have investigated various strategies which must be implemented in inclusive education settings for improving structural support as well as improved frameworks for sharing ideas. In future, I will encourage improved pre-service and during-service training and a better understanding of the needs of dyslexic learners which will enhance better reading skills and learning frameworks.
The study findings in the research project, clearly visualize that children witnesses unwelcoming behavior, as well as teachers, report various negative attitudes as well as lack of during-service training which impacts dyslexic learners in inclusive education. The children must be dealt with as per the level of reading skills required as per DSM-5 criteria. The children must be provided extra time as support for improved memory retention and improving behavioural support to avoid negative comments (Routledge et al., 2014). The students notes provide information about poor teaching pedagogies due to no or poor pre-service and during service training. Moreover, I found that children are impacted by negative and unwelcoming attitudes in secondary school settings along with a lack of extra support for teachers indulged in inclusive education (Tiernan et al., 2018). The finding suggests that merely providing extra reading materials is not enough for improving support for dyslexic children but there is a need for regular monitoring apps for helping teachers to analyse the learners memory retention as well as improved curriculum for phonics and syllables. It helped to analyse the various themes in dyslexic settings and poor frameworks of teaching pedagogies. In addition, it found that support to the students with learning differences helps in improving the addressable of their needs in inclusive settings (Pammer, 2014).
It clearly emphasized that the secondary schools must address the challenges of children who lacked any support in reading skills in a primary school setting due to the ignorant attitudes of teachers (Washburn et al., 2008). The research clearly emphasized upon reflective experiences of teachers in foreign language schools and treat English as a second language. The phonics in the case of a foreign language is different from that of phonics strategies in the English language. The research emphasized the importance of utilizing bidirectional phonics techniques in inclusive settings for whole student groups along with direct teaching being provided to non-dyslexic groups. Thus, children can practice with other pupils for the over-learning vital for long-term memory and retention (Whitaker, 2010).
Other support material includes customization of the font as well as enlarging the font size as per requirement. In some teachers, questionnaires it was described the generalistic adjustment of reading materials for dyslexic children which further leads to a supportive environment for children with learning differences. These adjustments vary as per the different symptoms varying from mild to severe learning difficulties as well as accommodating the learning requirements which differ too, thus a largely individualized and student-centred approach is needed (Pammer, 2014).
Other findings from the study suggest that support material includes customization of the font as well as enlarging the font size as per requirement. In some teachers, questionnaires it was described the generalistic adjustment of reading materials for dyslexic children which further leads to a supportive environment for children with learning differences. These adjustments vary as per the different symptoms varying from mild to severe learning difficulties as well as accommodating the learning requirements which differ too, thus a largely individualized and student-centred approach is needed (Binks-Cantrell et al., 2012).
It can be seen that learners with dyslexia must be given support in reading in inclusive settings majorly via training the teachers and addressing special educational needs of children The research project also highlighted various future research questions. The action research completed as well as data analysis took place which clearly revealed that dyslexic children in secondary schools must be provided support by teachers for improved learning and memory retention by reducing the incidence of negative and unwelcoming attitudes as these impact the reading and learning skills in a negative way (MacFarlane et al., 2012).
Read A Free Sample HMH2007 Person Centred Care
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