De Montfort University
There has been a discernible increase in the proportion of obese youngsters in the UK. WHO (2021) defines obesity including being overweight as excessive or abnormal body fat that may harm a person's health. Obesity rates among 4- and 5-year-olds enrolled in reception classrooms in England increased from 9.9% in 2019-2020 to 14.4% in 2020-2021. While the prevalence of obesity among year 6 students, who are 10 to 11 years old, increased from 21.0% in 2019â€“2020 to 25.5% in 2020â€“21 (NHS Digital, 2021). Childhood obesity has been acknowledged by the World Health Organization as one of the most important public health concerns of the twenty-first century (WHO, 2021). Being overweight as a youngster has serious physiological, social, and psychological repercussions. Much work has been done in the UK to attempt and lower the prevalence of childhood obesity. The government has prioritised improving levels of habitual physical exercise, engagement in sports, the calibre of physical education taught in schools, and promoting a nutritious, healthy diet (El-Sholkamy & Fischbach, 2019). The 'change 4 life' public health campaign, for instance, promotes families to walk more, eat healthfully, and live longer. Nevertheless, child obesity rates have remained high despite all of these initiatives. Children from better-off families are less likely to be overweight or obese, according to the evidence supporting this association between childhood adiposity (fat) and socioeconomic status additionally, these social disparities in childhood adiposity may have grown over time (Vazquez & Cubbin, 2020). It is important to continue thinking about the disparities in child overweight. It is conceivable to lessen the excessively high rates of child obesity in the UK by lowering these inequities if children from lower socioeconomic categories indeed have a greater prevalence of overweight and obesity. Through a decrease in the costs of care for the NHS, a decrease in these inequalities may have indirect economic benefits.
Paediatric obesity has increased globally over the past few decades, affecting both industrialised and developing nations. Young onset excess adiposity is associated with both short-term and long-term health hazards, including higher risk for type II diabetes and asthma, as well as higher middle-age morbidity and mortality independent of adult weight status due to the condition's persistence into adulthood (Jia et al., 2019). Adiposity and socioeconomic status (SEP) are related, although the connection is complicated and depends on factors including age, population, sex, ethnicity, and the type of adiposity indicator clinical nursing. SEP was shown to be inversely associated with children's overweight or obesity in 42% of the cross-sectional studies evaluated recently, with another 31% finding a combination of inverse and positive associations (Sanders et al., 2022).
Furthermore, it may be argued that it is unfair that social factors influence a child's risk of obesity and that redressing these disparities is a question of social justice. It is imperative to identify the underlying causes of the socioeconomic disparities in child overweight/obesity so that they are addressed successfully. Although these socioeconomic differences have been documented, there are still gaps in the literature about their long-term trends and the identification of the precise facets of social position (such as income, parental education, and social class) that are responsible for these inequalities.
In the UK, the prevalence of childhood obesity is rising alarmingly. According to Public Health England (2017), addressing obesity is presently one of England's biggest long-term health challenges. When it comes to youngsters who are of primary school age, 1 in 3 are overweight, and 1 in 5 of them are obese (Kininmonth et al., 2020). Children who live in the nation's most impoverished socioeconomic areas have the greatest rates of obesity.
In the UK, childhood obesity is not a problem that affects everyone equally. Children from ethnic minority group homes are more likely to develop fat than children from white families, highlighting the rapidly widening disparity between the socioeconomic classes and ethnic minority groups. To enable a better, healthier start in life, the discrepancies with financial and racial disparities need to be remedied, and the dramatically rising rates of obesity among ethnic minorities and lower socioeconomic status need to be resolved (Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, 2019).
The effect of obesity is long term and continues to be prevalent amongst the children till adulthood. According to Agha and Agha (2017), 8% of fat toddlers aged 1-2 years old will grow up to be obese adults, while 80% of children aged 10 to 14 will grow up to be obese adults. Statistics Dissertation and data indicate that the existing healthcare interventions are ineffective in reducing prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity. According to official statistics, there is a 12.5% difference in the frequency of obesity among children living in the most and least deprived districts of the UK (20.3% against 7.8%, respectively) (Jones et al., 2021). The UK government is aware that there needs to be a fight against childhood obesity because approximately one-third of children between the ages of 2 and 15 are overweight or obese. The public sector and the government must come up with a strategy to combat childhood obesity while respecting consumer preferences and economic considerations (Department of Health and Social Care, 2017). The main cause of these factors involved is a major component in the health disparities that exist between those who live in privileged and poor environments. Access to good food is more of a privilege than a right in England, where 1 in 5 people who are poor say that having enough to eat is more important than eating well.
Numerous chronic and fatal illnesses, such as strokes, Type II diabetes, several types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, and chronic back pain are all known to be risk factors for being overweight or obese (Bakaloudi et al., 2021). While many obese children don't seem to have any immediate health issues, they are more likely to have risk factors that leave them vulnerable to chronic illnesses later in life, like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and hormonal abnormalities (Rouhani et al., 2023). However, some obesity-related illnesses, such as type II diabetes, asthma, and musculoskeletal issues like Blount's disease, do manifest in childhood (Cioana et al., 2022). These are chronic illnesses that call for ongoing care throughout one's lifetime.
Adiposity in childhood has psychological and social effects in addition to physical ones (Singh et al., 2018). Despite the fact of Nursing Dissertation that obesity is becoming more common, evidence suggests that the condition has becoming stigmatised more and more (Puhl et al., 2020). Children and adolescents who are obese may encounter hostility from peers, teachers, other parents, and health professionals. The way people feel about childhood obesity may have an impact on those kids' opportunities in adulthood (Yi et al., 2019). Therefore, this social stigma and social marginalisation may have long-term effects on people's quality of life, psychological health, and life prospects.
Adults in developed countries are more likely to be obese if they have a lower socioeconomic standing. Evidence suggests a connection between parental SES and childhood obesity (Mehravar et al., 2019). Children from higher socioeconomic groups are less likely than those from lower socioeconomic groups to be overweight or obese.
Two fairly recent meta-analyses that both indicated definite increases in adult obesity rates in children who are exposed to maltreatment or abuse are drawing attention to the hypothesis that childhood adversity is an autonomous obesity risk factor (Hemmingson, 2018). Childhood adversity can also affect the regulation of adipose tissue mass upward (body weight set-point theory) for increased security and survival and result in redistributions of peripheral body fat to more visceral areas through effects like low self-esteem, poor mental health, chronic stress, chronic inflammation, emotional turmoil, and increased appetite.
An earlier pioneering study in this field discovered a substantial correlation between childhood neglectâ€”a clear indicator of a harsh social environmentâ€”and the eventual development of obesity (Iguacel et al., 2020). Furthermore, it is well known that childhood abuse significantly raises the chance of a number of our main causes of mortality, including mental health issues, addiction, heart disease, stroke, numerous types of cancer, suicide, type 2 diabetes, and extreme obesity (Baldwin et al., 2019). In conclusion, there is growing evidence that a challenging social environment during infancy and early childhood plays a significant role in the aetiology of obesity and a number of obesity-related comorbidities.
In nations like the UK which has adopted Western lifestyles, having a poor socioeconomic status (SES) is arguably one of the biggest risk factors for developing obesity as well as many other serious health issues, such as diabetes, cancer, and mental health issues (Magnusson et al., 2014). With the ever increasing difference between the obesity rates of low and high SES groups, there is mounting evidence that there is a causal relationship between socioeconomic status and the emergence of juvenile obesity. Childhood obesity rates in many developed nations have stabilised or even decreased in higher SES groups, whereas they have often increased in lower SES ones. This amplifies the importance of low SES as a risk factor. It can, therefore be anticipated that the negative effects of low SES will worsen as the income disparity in the communities widens, especially in nations where obesity is already well-entrenched. Poor self-esteem and self-worth, mental health issues, stress, bad belief systems, negative emotions, feeling disempowered, insecurity, and low SES are a few major repercussions that are particularly relevant to obesity (anger, apathy, hopelessness, frustration, shame, guilt, etc.).
SES is an important risk factor to obesity in children. In order to build a healthy generation, it is important that this risk factor is managed immediately. Therefore, the following research aims are formulated for the study:
In order to answer the research aims, the following research questions need to be answered:
The Research Methodology section's goal is to shed light on the techniques and procedures used by the researcher to carry out the research. This field of study is important since it offers the framework for the rest of the field's research. In a deeper context, research methodology is an organized approach that aids in answering the inquiry that was introduced in the study's first chapter and also assists with data collecting, sampling, and interpretation in order to reach a clear conclusion. On the other hand, a brief description of the ethical decisions that were made for the research is also included in the chapter.
The research design refers to the overall strategy or framework that helps the researchers carry out a study by assisting them in selecting the data gathering and analysis methodologies. The research design framework also aids the researchers in coming up with a collaborative response to the study's questions. There are two categories of research design: exploratory research design and conclusive research design. Exploratory research design does not concentrate on the ultimate result but instead investigates the research investigation. It helps the researchers deal with the various facets of the current subject (Hunter et al. 2019). Contrarily, a conclusive research design helps the researchers arrive at the ultimate conclusions regarding the study's objectives and findings. Therefore, this study will follow the conclusive research design which will aid in the arrival of answers of the research questions. This will be beneficial for the continuation of further studies in the field of children obesity.
Research philosophy alludes to the conviction that directs the researchers in their data collection and data analysis in order to determine the desired outcomes. Four categories of research philosophy exist: interpretivism, positivism, pragmatism, and realism. Researchers may include personal interests into their work when practising the interpretivism philosophy (Nahar et al. 2021). The positivist school of thought, in contrast, does not include human motivations in its research. In scientific investigation, the fundamental reality that can be seen as phenomena is represented using the realism philosophy. The key quantitative data in this study are analysed using a positivist research philosophy.
Investigators are able to perform the study objectively by using appropriate data collecting and interpretation techniques with the help of the positivist research philosophy. The researchers will gather and analyse data; they do not include any of their own personal interests into the study (Marsonet, 2019). There is significant impact of SES on the lifestyle of children that leads to obesity, and the current study takes the primary data on difficulties in families facing poor SES. The philosophy of positivism aids researchers in determining the appropriate factors that are responsible for SES related obesity and the subsequent consequences. Since no personal interests are involved, objectivity may be upheld.
The research strategy aids in deciding on the design and technique to be employed for the related research job. Deductive, inductive, and abductive research methodologies are among the three types available in this area (Sileyew, 2019). The chosen approach is an important component of the research because it determines how relevant the study is in its whole. In order to comprehend SES as a risk factor for obesity, a deductive method will be used in the current study. The study recognizes the effects of SES on the lifestyle of families and children. It also highlights the consequences of obesity in the children. Because the study has a strong focus on finding the the effect of SES on obesity and SES as a risk factor of obesity, a quantitative research strategy has been used in the current research study. The research will be carried out with the aid of a survey and questionnaire to gather these data. The acquired data is therefore primarily numerical and can only be expressed via a quantitative research technique. The relationship questions and variables used for the research can be analysed using quantitative research. Quantitative research aids in establishing and validating relationships between two variables because it typically starts with a problem statement that is resolved with the use of numerical research.
Selecting the suitable data gathering instruments may be considered as a central idea behind the research because data gathering is a crucial process and a significant component of any form of research effort. Data gathering contributes to the research's understanding, thus enhancing the study's effectiveness. Only primary or secondary data collection techniques are allowed for data collection. Primary data is regarded as being something that has never been utilised before, and because it is brand-new, this method is more difficult, costly, and time-consuming. Primary data gathering techniques are either qualitative or quantitative depending on the sort of research (Mazhar et al. 2021). Close-ended questions are used in surveys and questionnaires since primary quantitative data is of a numerical character. In order to obtain people's thoughts, attitudes, and feelings, primary qualitative data uses interviews, questionnaires, and surveys but does not, strictly speaking, use mathematical computations. However, for the current research investigation, only primary quantitative data will be used. With the aid of questionnaires, the current research intends to learn about the factors that are influenced by SES in order to better understand food habits and lifestyles that lead to obesity in the children. The researcher's decision to use this method of data gathering has improved his or her understanding of the research issue. Primary quantitative research has been the major way for gathering data for the research because of all the strategic benefits it offers.
While selecting the best method for gathering data is essential to the study, using the proper tools for data analysis is important. With the use of Google forms, a survey will be carried out with a variety of closed-ended questions to better understand the correlation between SES and obesity. The results of the survey will be used to validate the research. Following that, the data will be arranged using Microsoft Excel and examined using IBMM SPSS. This type of data analysis techniques was selected because it has the potential to provide precise insight into the phenomenon studied (Okagbueet al. 2021). Additionally, this approach can be used to evaluate management approaches for obesity.
The four main principles of ethicsâ€”autonomy, beneficence, justice, and non-maleficenceâ€”must be taken into account by nurses doing nursing assignment research. These principles are the same ethical standards taken into account in all research involving human participants (Haddad and Geiger, 2020). According to Heale and Shorten (2016), researchers should aim to maximise study benefits while minimising risk to participants. This can be accomplished by making sure that participants can make informed decisions, that they are respected, and that they can engage voluntarily (Epstein and Turner, 2015). According to GOV UK (2019), there are many principles that should be taken into account while making ethical decisions. When there is insufficient security to effectively protect secrecy, risks are always there. Therefore, it is essential to keep it throughout the investigation. The research project takes care to avoid intentionally or unintentionally hurting anyone (Mohajan, 2018). Additionally, it makes sure that any reports and public documents are generated with and without vital information. In addition, the data utilised in the study should better adhere to validity, integrity, and quality standards. An important component of privacy is anonymity, which must be preserved in the research project. After the research is over, it is the researcher's job to destroy all the data so that no one else can duplicate same data. The academic ethics committee for research of DMU must receive the ethical report. It is crucial to carefully complete the ethics form and make sure to adhere to it throughout the research investigation.
Obesity is frequently correlated with socioeconomic position, and there are other potential contributing factors to consider, including ethnicity, income, occupation, and education (Wippold and Tucker, 2016). This particular research proposal's helpful value and prospective impact is to establish a precise association between obesity rates in the UK and poor socioeconomic categories. By doing this, it may be possible to conduct additional study on useful tactics and interventions. As a result, it will be possible to put them into practise and modify them specifically for kids and families who suffer from poverty and deprivation, which will contribute to a long-term decline in childhood obesity rates. There is also a huge amount of prior current research on how poverty and socioeconomic status affect obesity prevalence, which is pertinent to the thesis put forth and can bolster the study proposal. The sample size for this study, which was chosen to be between 1000 and 500 individuals in order to obtain a statistical result that is typical of the population, may be a potential limitation. A much larger sample size may be necessary for this study to be thorough and valid. Another option is that the research may have a time limit because it is planned to be completed over a 24-month period, which could make it challenging to collect data for the study.
In conclusion, past studies have demonstrated the incidence of obesity among people and families from low socioeconomic backgrounds. A number of contributing variables to the obesity pandemic, including the industrialization of fast food, the cost-of-living problem, and the education and employment level of someone from a lower socioeconomic class, are directly correlated with poverty, including the rise in obesity rates. This study will be able to show if low-income families that experience poverty and deprivation are more likely to have children who are obese, as well as whether kids who grow up in these environments are more likely to experience obesity later in life.
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Mental Health Psychiatric Care In Adults
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