Federation University Australia
Australia's health results and national healthcare rate favourably when comparing to those of other nations. Australia improved its position from 7th in 2013 to sixth in the worldwide in respect of health effectiveness in 2014 (Doran & Kinchin, 2017). It also placed seventh in regards to life expectancy. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Better Life Index, that gauges how residents view their physical, intellectual, and social well-being, regularly places it among the forefront (Dixit & Sambasivan, 2018). Governments may play a role in organising by creating a sound plan and approach for the private sector to attain high-quality health services care for the customers' health, which include: social marketing, regulating, contracting, and funding. So when private sector effectively implements government policies and applies them, the quality of healthcare significantly improves. This is especially true when government initiatives are implemented by the private sector.
What is the current status of healthcare reform in the Australia?
What is the role of private sectors in improving healthcare services within Australia?
What are several challenges and opportunities faced by Australiaâ€™s healthcare providers for implementing plan of reforming the healthcare sectors?
The provided research consider the involvement of private sector within the healthcare sectors of the Australian region. The study develops better understanding the organisational challenges facing Australian healthcare providers as they carry out the plan to reform the healthcare sectors is the goal of this study (Dixit, Routroy & Dubey, 2019). Additionally, a better comprehension of these elements can help people learn more about and comprehend. The state of healthcare reform right now along with the combine the public and private sectors to enhance health care services and the organisational challenges affecting this reform strategy at the moment are the key focused area of the research.
Theme 1: Considering the current healthcare status of Australian healthcare industry
The current healthcare status of Australian healthcare industry provides findings on the bulk of the population benefits greatly from Australia's high level of living and first-rate health system, along with a greater life expectancy. According to official figures by Offner et al., (2020), the average life expectancy for men and women would be 95.1 and 96.6 years, respectively, by 2055. New-born mortality also is lower in the nation, having 1,094 infant deaths occurring in 2013 compared to 1,264 infant fatalities in 2002 (Offner et al., 2020). Effective public and private hospitals serving the medical tourism market in Australia might increase income and aid in funding national health programmes (Briggs et al., 2020). However, Australia ranks behind such a rivals in a number of areas when it comes to healthcare tourism. Its rivals' visa application procedures are substantially faster, and there aren't many local networks to help direct patients from other countries to possible doctors. Australia also lacks organisations that can effectively sell services abroad and organise the transmission of patients' medical data from outside. However, compared with the literature findings of Semantha et al., (2020), state organisations, private enterprises are able to adapt their governance structures to developments in the marketplace, making them useful providers of improved practises. Public health organisations that have attempted to adapt to developments in the marketplace. For patients who live nearby, hospitals have a natural monopoly on their services (Semantha et al., 2020). Such organisations can also establish monopolistic power through their relationships with the other clinics and general practitioners. Manufacturers of surgical supplies that have licencing arrangements with leading foreign firms might quickly control a domestic economy. By creating expert monopolies, drugstore merchants can manage their mark-up. Due to their availability to discounted or free capital from local and international donors, the public and non-profit sectors enjoy a competitive edge over the private sector.
According to the literature findings by Carey et al., (2016), many Australian medical centre entrepreneurs are finding success by expanding outside within their own country in attempt to increase their earnings. For illustrate, the 43 pathology labs that the Australian healthcare firm Health scope has in New Zealand and other parts of Asia contributed 10% of its income in 2014. Ramsay Health Care, the leading supplier of private hospitals in Australia, has been growing its global activities since 2007 including expansions and collaborative operations (Carey et al., 2016). By evaluating on the drawn literature, it can be stated that, distant and remotely teaching are becoming realistic and well-liked educational options because to technological advancements. Australian universities have seen a sharp increase in the number of remote or distance learners over the past five years, reaching 211,000 in 2009 reaching 302,000 in 2013. These have increased the number of individuals attending universities while automatically necessitating further investments in infrastructure and infrastructural environment on the part of the academic establishments.
Therefore, the provided theme evaluated on the current healthcare status of Australian healthcare industry. The theme provided literature on relatable data considering the role of private and public healthcare sectors within the regional economy. The theme findings can be drawn upon placing the role of private healthcare sectors to boost economic growth of the industry within the Australian region. Furthermore, the international growth objectives can also be facilitated through operation of private sector.
Theme 2: Private sector involvement in the economic growth
According to Al-Hanawi Khan & Al-Borie, (2019), the primary force behind global progress is the private sector. Many businesses consider commercial success as a result of the health and economic vitality of the communities in which they operate because they have a significant interest in the development of emerging nations (Al-Hanawi Khan & Al-Borie, 2019). From the literature analysis, a variety of development efforts are being pursued by businesses as a consequence, either alone or in collaboration with NGOs and donor governments. Businesses desire better operational effectiveness, more market access, and a secure working environment. In developing nations, each of these circumstances might be difficult to deal with. Companies may convey investment, technology, and skills by coordinating basic business practises with social interests.
According to Kraef & Kallestrup, (2019), the amount of business investment in developing nations is enormous, especially when compared to official aid. Opportunities for collaboration act as a multiplier for investments in development. Additionally, Telstra, Australia's largest telecom company, has kept up its investment in its telehealth services (Kraef & Kallestrup, 2019). The business currently provides some of these services and plans to collaborate with national and local governments. To expand its telehealth capabilities, Telstra has also acquired purchases and worked with local and international businesses including Medgate, Fred IT, Health Connex, Health Engine, and Verdi (Jones et al., 2020). The reviewing the provided literature, governments may organise the private sector to provide high-quality health services by developing a strong plan and strategy, which may involve social marketing, regulating, contracting, and funding. Therefore, the quality of healthcare considerably increases when the private sector successfully incorporates government plans and applies them. This is especially true when private companies carry out government projects.
According to Krech et al., (2018), Australia having embraced telecommunication and telemedicine technology well, and its skills in this field have expanded quickly. Australia's most remote regions, like the North Of the country, wherein receiving in-person medical treatment is challenging due to remoteness from the rest of the country and a small population, are effectively served by the private healthcare sector of the nation. Shifting to the more general subject of medical administration, specialists understand that the industry faces difficulties on a range of levels (Krech et al., 2018). The National Health Legislation of 1953, the Therapeutic Goods Legislation of 1989, and the Federal Medicines Legislation of 1999 are just a few of Australia's historic healthcare laws that were developed in significantly distinct socioeconomic, ecologic, financial, empirical, medical, and industrial paradigms than they are today. A large portion of the core law regulating government is no longer functional. Institutions that were supposed to play crucial roles in guaranteeing safe and efficient medicines have fallen short of expectations. The TGA is charged with ensuring the immediate supply of medications, but Australia has experienced rising levels of shortfalls and over past ten years, and neither the TGA and neither government have managed to make any noticeable efforts to address the issue outside of alerting healthcare professionals and the general public to impending shortages and identifying alternatives that can be offered to the public by finding ways to circumvent standard regulatory requirements.
According to Dixit, Routroy & Dubey, (2019), Australia is home to many doctors who were trained abroad and has substantial expertise in tele-medicine. In order to bring telemedicine and tele-diagnostics to remote locations, healthcare professionals might benefit from the physicians' familiarity with the culture of their native country and their linguistic abilities (Dixit, Routroy & Dubey, 2019). Given its local time, Australia is in an unusual opportunity to provide night reading to people in the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. In telehealth, Australia is really doing this by offering night readings for the U.S. and European Union markets. However, a variety of obstacles prevent telemedicine from currently being such a reliable source of export income. Laws governing practitioner compensation and licensure as well as issues with legal risk, medical care standards, and patient safety are some of these. Additionally, the pool of specialists available to care providers is small. However, there are methods to get around these obstacles. Australia might serve as an example by establishing free trade agreements with developing nations and by focusing on governments to encourage regulatory change. Healthcare workers could also go through a procedure to get international licences and certifications.
The respective theme provided, private healthcare insurance is easily accessible and provides reimbursement for specific treatments as well as reimbursement for out expenses and private providers. It also gives a wider range of providers and a high efficiency to non-emergency care. Ambulance services, general therapy, and hospital care may all be covered by private health insurance policies. Dental, physiotherapist, chiropractors, reflexology, home healthcare, and ophthalmology treatments are all covered by current treatment coverage. The extent of coverage may indeed be limited, as well as the number of services provided. Patients can choose to be regarded as either a public or private patient for emergency care.
Theme 3: Healthcare system in Australian and related legislation
According to Carbonell Navarroâ€PÃ©rez & Mestre, (2020), the Australian health-care sector is highly responsive it is concentrated on handling immediate crises and has no extra ability to deal with long-term problems. The tension between the requirement for efficiency and the aspirations of people and groups in contemporary community limits our capacity to address healthcare sustainability (Carbonell Navarroâ€PÃ©rez & Mestre, 2020). In the context of a limited supply of resources, Australia's neoliberalism political climate of the market economy encourages cost effectiveness. Unfortunately, modern society is increasingly supposing that individuals will always capable of obtaining the most advanced medical equipment and expensive medications. The ageing of the population,, weather-related consequences of climate change socioeconomic decline, and outbreaks all have effects on the health service that haven't been sufficiently studied or communicated with Australians.
According to Wande et al., (2019), Australians have one of the longest life expectancies anywhere in the world, and the majority of them enjoy easy access to high-quality, all-encompassing healthcare. The majority of the nation's health care system is supported by taxes, and it provides relatively cost-effective medical treatment and positive health results (Wande et al., 2019). Despite these impressive accomplishments, some persistent issues remain unresolved, including the question of whether increasing healthcare expenditure are sustainable, conflicts between different levels of government, lengthy wait times for elective surgery, differences in service access between urban and rural areas, and the persistently poor health status of Indigenous Australians.
As stated by Peacock et al., (2019), the health care system in Australia is complicated and includes both public and private financiers and practitioners. The national structure of government's separation of powers and the large variety of stakeholders restrict any one actor's capacity to plan or supervise (Peacock et al., 2019). Furthermore, because they contribute the majority of the share of the funding, governments have a lot to think for facilitating effective decision-making for these sectors in the Australian region. The Australian government seems to have a nationwide role in determining healthcare system and the authority, but pays healthcare services rather than delivering them. It supports and manages the Medicare programme, which subsidises outpatient treatment, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, which covers the cost of prescription pharmaceuticals, and through the Australian Health Care Agreements, it provides funding to the States for the operation of public hospitals (Kosycarz, Nowakowska & MikoÅ‚ajczyk, 2019).
The private sector is mostly responsible for both the delivery and, to a smaller degree, the financing of health services. About each of all healthcare costs in the mid-1990s was covered by the private industry, combining consumer out-of-pocket expenses and private health insurance costs. The majority of Australians have easy access to comprehensive, high-quality healthcare, and they have one of the longest life expectancies in the world, according to Wande et al. (2019). The majority of the country's health care system is funded by taxes, and it offers reasonably affordable medical care and produces favourable health outcomes (Wande et al., 2019). The question of whether rising healthcare costs are sustainable, disputes between levels of government, lengthy wait times for elective surgery, disparities in service access between urban and rural areas, and the persistently poor health status of Indigenous Australians are just a few of the issues that persist despite these outstanding achievements.
The research of Thapa & Camtepe, (2021), provides a variety of financial and regulatory frameworks, several service kinds, numerous providers, and a complicated health care system are all present in Australia. Health care is funded and provided through both the private and public sectors, and all governmental levels are engaged. The majority of the healthcare system is funded by the Commonwealth, which also pays for drugs and assisted-living facilities for the elderly (Thapa & Camtepe, 2021). Compared to research of Al-Hanawi Khan & Al-Borie (2019), that claims the private sector is mostly responsible for the advancement of the world. Because they have a keen interest in the advancement of developing countries, many corporations view their communities' prosperity and health as indicators of their own commercial success (Al-Hanawi Khan & Al-Borie, 2019). With economic backing from the Commonwealth, the six state and two territory governments are in charge of managing hospitals and clinics, mental health, and public health services as well as supervising healthcare professionals. The majority of society health and dental care is delivered by therapists; there is a sizable medical centre sector and sizable private insurance industry. The three basic aspects are that there is a sizable private sector, there are several players in the pluralist health care profession, and there is significant overlap between the Commonwealth and state governments. The average life expectancy for men and women would be 95.1 and 96.6 years, respectively, by 2055, according to official statistics by Offner et al., (2020). The country's baby mortality rate is also lower, with 1,094 infant deaths in 2013 vs 1,264 infant deaths in 2002. (Offner et al., 2020). Successful public and commercial hospitals that cater to Australia's medical tourism industry may see a rise in revenue and help pay for national health programmes. However, Doran & Kinchin, (2017), provides universal coverage to the majority of health care, regardless of capacity to pay, is a fundamental tenet of Australia's health system. The primary source of funding for the system's health care is taxes. Medical facilities and environmental health are partially supported by combined Commonwealth and state financing arrangements, while health services are provided by Medicare and the Pharmacy Benefits Scheme, two federal subsidy programmes (Doran & Kinchin, 2017). With diverse financing structures for intermediate, postsecondary, and public health programmes, primary medical treatment is thus predominantly covered by national health insurance. The TGA is responsible for ensuring the immediate supply of medications, but over the past ten years, Australia has seen rising levels of shortages, and neither the TGA nor the government have been able to make any notable efforts to address the problem outside of warning medical professionals and the general public about impending shortages and identifying alternatives that can be provided to the public by finding ways to circumvent standard regulatory requirements Legal risk, medical care standards, and patient safety are a few of them, as are laws controlling practitioner pay and licensure. The number of experts that are accessible to care providers is also limited. There are ways to overcome these challenges, though. By signing free trade agreements with emerging countries and concentrating on governments to support regulatory change, Australia may serve as an example. Healthcare professionals may also go through a process to get international certifications and licences.
The focus of this study is on the fundamental benefits of using effective project management techniques. The major gap in the literature was observed to be lack of considering latest trends within the project firm marketplace. The literature provided within the current study develops findings based on the existing researches and sources of literature performed previously. The relatability of research findings is limited due to the consideration of past project marketplace scenario within the sources.
The research methodology plays a vital role for a researcher to extract effective research findings. The research undertaken by primary data collection involves high resources usage and provide quantitative research findings. On the other hand, the research findings being developed through considering literature sources and existing researches helps the researcher to develop qualitative findings. The selection of methodology depends on key aims and objectives of the research being developed through the problem of research highlighted within the research topic.
Numerous factors influence the research findings while performing a research whether being primary or secondary research. The role of researcher in the selection of research methodology does not include aspects that have not been investigated when interpreting the results. It affects the pursuit of the truth in some way. Therefore, the researcher should consider these elements while making his interpretation. For instance, if the performance of project firm is compared between a standard approach and any modern method. It can be stated that the modern methods of project management would be more effective than the traditional methods. The concepts within the project management research are typically so numerous that the researcher only gathers data from a certain group. The researcher must keep in mind that some elements that were not included in the chosen group have an equal influence on the results. For instance, the researcher could gather information from a project firm within a specific location before drawing conclusions about the findings of the research. The researcher must keep in mind that, even if the research's findings match their predictions, they should not generalise beyond what is reasonable given the facts at hand. The researcher must be careful to include all potential contributing aspects to the findings.
From the analysis of the literature and findings made in the report, communities help organise the private sector to provide high-quality health services by developing a strong plan and strategy, which may involve social marketing, regulating, contracting, and funding. Therefore, the quality of healthcare considerably increases when the private sector successfully incorporates government plans and applies them. This is especially true when private companies carry out government projects. The current study takes into account the role played by the private sector in Australian healthcare. Better understand the organisational problems that Australian healthcare providers face as they implement the strategy to reform the healthcare sectors. Additionally, a deeper understanding of these components might aid in learning and comprehension. The current condition of healthcare reform, the integration of the public and private sectors to improve health care services, and the organisational issues currently impeding this reform plan were the main emphasis of the study.
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Mental Health Psychiatric Care In Adults
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