Basically the universe is created from three materials like dark matter, normal matter and dark energy. Normal matter is what we see on the earth like humans, stars and visible objects.
As per current model of universe, 5% of the universe is normal matter, 25% is made of dark matter and 70% is occupied by dark energy. Density of the universe is high therefore the cluster of galaxies would grow continually. It is believed by some astronomers that we are living in a very low density universe where dark matter is estimated as 70% of the universe. Hence, it shows that the universe is made of high density matter which opposes today's belief about the universe.
Universe is everything, whatever we see is part of the universe, whether it is any matter or energy, everything is considered as the universe.
Many scientists have given multiple theories on dark matter but still there is no clarity provided by the scientist, however, scientists have found a particle called neutrinos which do not emit light which is the characteristic of dark matter. But neutrinos are small particles which cannot occupy the whole universe. Still, there are multiple researches being conducted by many scientists in the world but no final conclusion has been made.
Whatever we know is part of the universe like galaxies, comets, moon, sun and many others. All the galaxies of the universe and all the other stars and galaxies which we did not identify till now are also part of the universe.
Pioneering discoveries of Fritz Zwickey and john oort have traced back the existence of dark matter theory stars in their own galaxy and motion of galaxies in the Chroma cluster, which do not follow Newton's law of gravity and visible masses. Still we do not have evidence of the existence of dark matter.
Universe is around 13.8 billion years old. Most astronomers use globular clusters to calculate the age of the universe. It is the group of million stars. As all the globular clusters are made at the same time so they work as a cosmic clock in the universe. This is how we calculate the age of the universe.
To calculate the age of the universe, we need to understand the Big Bang Theory where the Hubble constant is a term used by astronomers to measure the age of the universe. The Hubble constant is used by astronomers to define the age of the universe. If we consider the universe as a flat object and made of normal matter then the age of the earth would be considered as 2/(3H0) but if we consider the universe as low dense matter it would be considered as 1/H0.
Most of the astronomers in the world are working to understand the exact age of the universe. A team of international scientists led by the Vendee Freedman used the Hubble telescope to see the real position of celestial objects and calculated the age of the universe as 9 to 11.5 billion years.
For millions of years, people did not understand the reality of the universe. There were various misconceptions among the people about the universe. But at the same time many basic concepts of physics were also invented by our ancestors.
Our ancestors have started their research about the universe, however many people around the world have made several contributions in several fields of science. The word scientist was not discovered, the people who contributed to science were known as natural philosophers. The galaxy is not so old. All these inventions and innovations in science and technology happened in the last few years. Only half a century has passed since the invention of the space shuttle to send it to other planets. There are many space probes that have been sent to other planets. Most of the research has been conducted in 21 centuries. Even some scientists have sent a rover on Mars which is a big achievement of science and technology. Various planets have been discovered by the 21st century scientists and all of the major discoveries have been made 50 to 60 years back. As of now, we have enough information about the other planets as well but there was a time when we were not aware about the earth's reality like how it rotates, revolve and other related concepts of earth.
With changes in technological advancements, scientists are doing new research and they are exploring the entire universe. But the reality is that what we have discovered is not even 1% of reality.
Our universe is around 14 billion years old but the existence of humans on this earth is around not millions of years, it has been around a few thousand years only. That means, the existence of humans on this planet is very less as compared to the existence of the universe.
Exploration of this solar system is not so old, however our knowledge and understanding about the universe has tremendously improved with the passage of time.
There are several challenges faced by scientists conducting research. As every field faces challenges likewise it also faces multiple challenges.
Regardless of these insights, many students need help in accomplishing their assignment so they take some insight from assignment help services.
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