Schon Reflective Model

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Schon Reflective Model

A Comprehensive Guide To Schon's Reflective Model

Indeed, reflection is an art it is a way of improving learning and going ahead with multiple self-improvements. Schon's reflective model is the best in this case. It is amongst the most powerful frameworks that guide a person in enhancing their professional aspects and skillfully analysing their actions.

So, are you someone, who is willing to build extraordinary expertise using Schon's reflection model? But if you do not have much knowledge about it, then relax as this article by The Student Helpline experts is going to be your steeping light. It will take you through the core information and knowledge of this fantastic model along with some best examples. It goes as!

What is Schon's Reflective Model?

Schon's Reflective Model is an academic paradigm that is used to highlight the value of reflection in learning and skill development. The model was developed by Donald A. Schon, back in 1983 that is done to define the two main kinds of reflection. Thus, Schon's model of reflection has two main aspects:

  1. Reflection-in-action: The reflection-in-action takes place during the activity. It involves thinking on your feet, making adjustments, and problem-solving in real time. For example, a teacher might modify their lesson plan based on students' reactions during a class.
  2. Reflection-on-action: On the other hand, the reflection-on-action occurs only after the event is done. This process involves analysing and evaluating what happened, why it arose, and what insights can be drawn from the event. For example, consider a teacher not following a lesson for making class a success.

Components of Schon's Model Of Reflection

Schon Model Of Reflection

Schon's model of Reflection grants you to learn the perform your reflections on certain events. You can complete this with the use of the main components of this model. The main four components of the Schons reflective model:

  1. Problem Framing:
    • Understanding And Acknowledging The Issue.
    • Defining The Inputs And Context Of Your Topic.
    • Recognizing The Main Problems And Challenges.
  2. Action:
    • Setting A Plan Of Action Based On The Original Frame.
    • Implementing Practical Duties To Solve The Issue.
    • Deciding And Adjusting With Real Scenarios.
  3. Reflection:
    • Placing Reflection Into Action While Performing The Task.
    • Thinking And Acting In Real-Time And Evaluating Them.
    • Reflecting And Engaging With The Activity To Grab Results.
  4. Reframing:
    • Changing Your Original Knowledge With Reflection.
    • To Redefine The Issue And Methods For Fresh Knowledge.
    • Preparing New Initiatives Based On Thoughtful Observations.

Step By Step Guide To Apply The Schon's Model Of Reflection

You can easily use Schons model of reflection without getting worried about anything. Here is a step-by-step guide to understand this:

  1. Know the Problem: Firstly, look around and select the problem from your problem for practice.
  2. Get into Reflection-in-Action: Once you get involved, think and make adjustments with your time. Yet, ensure that you take care of your actions and ideas.
  3. Engage With Reflection-on-Action: The next thing is to reflect on the situations taking place. Additionally, give time to analyse your decisions.
  4. Reframe the Problem: After, completing the reflection process, start reassessing your knowledge of the situation. You need to engage with your methods and approaches effectively.
  5. Craft It Properly: Now, you can pen down all your reflections and points properly to present an engaging work.

Some Exemplary Schon's Reflective Model Case Study

Case Study 1: Nurse Jimmy got stuck in a difficult situation, the moment she saw Mr. Smith, an elderly patient. This man has been constantly complaining about severe chest pains during a night shift in the emergency room. So, Jimmy is now looking to analyse the circumstances using Schon's reflective model. This mainly covers:

Knowledge in action: Nurse Jamie relies on her clinical training to assess Mr Smiths condition. She quickly performs an ECG, monitors vital signs, and administers prescribed medications. Her knowledge of cardiac care protocols guides her initial actions, ensuring Mr. Smith receives immediate and appropriate treatment.

Reflection in action: Further, nurse Jimmy will be attentive to Mr Smith and observe if there are any changes in his health negatively or positively, despite quick treatments. She will then quickly examine all her plans of action, taking into account different diagnoses, and consult with the doctor treating the patient-physician. Finally, with all these real-time results, Jimmy will modify her care plan, scheduling more tests and changing the medication.

Reflection on action: The nurse Jimmy will at last discuss the entire scenario with the senior doctor, supervising the health of the patient. She will explain how she made decisions, identifying areas that could use development and emphasizing tactics that work. Thus, Jimmy will gain knowledge of the value of flexibility and careful assessment in such situations.

Case Study 2: Consider a manager who is working for retail management and is trying to pick some of the best and latest customer service processes. This will mainly improve the experience of shopping and win again the loyalty of the clients. So, in the face of falling customer satisfaction ratings, the manager is using Schon's reflective model to make a drastic comeback. It works as:

Knowledge in action: Initially, the retail manager will offer some best staff training on the freshly implemented processes. He will lay a strong emphasis on efficient problem-solving and customized interactions with clients. A customer can be making complaints about long checkout waits- time during peak hours. As quickly as possible, employees continue to keep consumers happy by activating additional terminals and engaging them with some healthy conversations.

Reflection in action: Thus, with an improvement, the manager will surely appreciate the staff with the adaptability and improved responsiveness of the customers. Observing the impact of immediate adjustments, the manager will push the employees to strive to boost proactive customer care. They will have to ensure that the client's needs are a priority and must be given precedence during rush.

Reflection on action: With the final analysis, there will be a sure increase in customer satisfaction rates. The manager will now get into acknowledging innovative problem-solving and staff engagement for the following initiative. Their plans include a regular input loop and ongoing staff training to uphold high service standards and best customer feedback.

Know About the Donald Schon's Model Of Reflection

Back in 1983, Donald Schon came up with the Donald Schon's model of reflection. In fact, the practitioner wrote two books namely in his book named "The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action" in 1983. Further, in 1991, he came up with another notable work called "Educating the Reflective Practitioner." Donald Schon introduced the ideas of reflective practice. It works as a groundwork for students to understand how they might use reflection to continually enhance their knowledge.

1. Schon's Model of Reflection (1983)

Schon structured his book back in 1983 with the concept of the "reflective practitioner" in his mind. He made the point that researchers often have to deal with specific, difficult circumstances in Schon's model of reflection 1983. Hence, this would call you for more than just the use of traditional methods. Instead, you must practice reflection-in-action to adjust and react properly.

2. Schon's Model of Reflection (1991)

Besides, Schon's model of reflection 1991 is built on his initial studies when he highlighted the value of reflective thinking in career growth. He underscored the need for academic efforts that were aimed at producing individuals who can consider their conduct carefully and draw insights from their past.

Comparison Between Gibbs Reflective Cycle And Schon's Reflection Model

Recall that Schon's Reflection Model and the Gibbs Reflective Cycle are two popular frameworks for reflective practices. So, here are some pointers that will guide you to compare the Gibbs Reflective Cycle and Schon's Reflection model and contrast these models:

  1. Structure: The Gibs reflective cycle focuses on outline, emotions, testing, examination, conclusion, and plan of action. Besides, Schon's reflection model has no accurate structure but focuses only on reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action.
  2. Focus: Further, Schon's reflection model helps provide a professional judgment with the best decisions for the scenario. However, the Gibs reflective cycle is used to study an event systemically.
  3. Application: The Gibs reflective cycle is widely used in education and healthcare learning. On the other hand, Schon's reflection model works best for decision-making.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Schon's Reflective Model

Apart from everything, indeed there are various advantages and disadvantages of Schon's reflective model. You can go through them:


  1. Facilitates Ongoing Learning: Schon's reflection model supports continuous development and growth, by assisting students in refining their abilities and responding to new challenges.
  2. Improves Problem-solving skills: You can improve your ability to solve problems while making better decisions and thinking back on what you have done.
  3. Boosts Adaptability: By implementing Schon's model of reflection, you can allow you to make quick adjustments. It helps in increasing the ability to adapt to changing situations.
  4. Supports Professional Learning: The model of reflection helps you in improving your learning. In fact, you get to pinpoint their areas for career improvement.


  1. Time-taking: Working on Schon's model of reflection essay can be very time-consuming. This is because the process of reflection takes a lot of time to work within the roots.
  2. Over-Reflection: Recall that an excessive reflection is a condition in which people get lost in detail in their investigation of their conduct due to prolonged thought.
  3. Healthy Environment Required: It could be difficult for you to participate in reflective methods in the absence of a supporting environment. Thus, it is necessary to create a culture that prioritizes promoting open discussion for working with Schon's reflective model.
  4. Resource Allocation: Effective practice of reflection application frequently asks you to work along with the resources including facilitation, training, and time. To support this, you need to be ready to make the required investments in these resources.

To conclude, the Schon's Reflective Model serves as a dynamic and adaptable method for students for career development and it even encourages continuous learning and adaptability. This concept simply allows you to make a better analysis of your experiences. Additionally, Schon's reflective model allows you to make wise judgments, and improve your work by using reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action.


What is Schon's reflective model?

Schon's Reflective Model places an extreme value on using personal reflection to grow and grow up. It involves a process of reflection, after the activity and reflection-in-action during the activity.

How to use Schon's Reflective Model?

You can mainly use Schon's reflection model to uncover improvements and insights for your upcoming activities by paying attention reflection-in-action and evaluating the experience afterwards reflection-on-action.

Name some Benefits of Schon's Reflective Model.

Some of the benefits of Schon's reflective model include boosting your decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Additionally, this includes career growth and a deeper comprehension of methods through continuous development and reflection.

How is Schon's Reflective Model in Education helpful?

Schon's model of reflection plays an important role in education while reflecting on teaching methods. It builds great student-teacher relationships, and learning methods to improve practices and results.

Can Schon's reflection model be used in fields other than nursing?

Yes, you can use Schon's model of reflection nursing framework as it is adaptable and may be applied to improve procedures through reflection in a variety of industries, including business, education, healthcare, and engineering.

What distinguishes reflection-on-action from reflection-in-action?

In Schon's reflective model, the reflection-on-action is mainly an analysis of various events to be followed. Besides, a reflection-in-action allows you to make changes depending on the ongoing analysis.

How can I get around the limitations of applying the Schon reflective model?

To overcome limitations, you can integrate Schon's reflection model with additional reflecting methods. Additionally, you have to ensure enough time for contemplation and create an inviting setting for honest self-evaluation.

How to reference Schon's reflective model?

You can reference a Schon'a reflective model in the APA reference style source for 1983. The reflective practitioner: The way experts reason through their work. Essential Books.

Explain Schon's Reflective Model vs Gibbs Reflective Cycle.

Schon's model of reflection focuses on analysis during and after actions. Whereas, the Gibbs Reflective Cycle provides a structured six-stage method for reflection. It involves description, emotions, evaluation, evaluation, conclusion, and action plan.

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